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Xenochrophis cerasogaster (CANTOR, 1839)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Painted Keelback
G: Dunkelbäuchige Fischnatter 
SynonymPsammophis cerasogaster CANTOR 1839: 52
? Tropidonotus cerasogaster — GÜNTHER 1859: 224
Xenochrophis cerasogaster — GÜNTHER 1864
Amphiesma schistaceum JAN 1865 (fide SMITH 1943)
Xenochrophis cerasogaster — BOULENGER 1893: 191
Xenochrophis cerasogaster — SMITH 1943: 317
Xenochrophis cerasogaster — DAS 1996: 59
Xenochrophis cerasogaster — WALLACH et al. 2014: 797 
DistributionPakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, India (Assam, Uttar Pradesh), West Malaysia

Type locality: Vicinity of Calcutta  
TypesLectotype: iconotype, color plate in the Bodleian Library, London (fide KRAMER 1977) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Günther (1864) erected the genus Xenochrophis with the following diagnostic characters: body cylindrical, rather stout; head narrow, elongate; eye with round pupil; nostrils lateral, situated in the upper part of a single plate; shields of the head regular; scales keeled, in nineteen rows; ventrals rounded; anal bifid; subcaudals paired; no conspicuously longer teeth; they are widely set, those in middle of maxillary series and those in front of mandible being rather larger than the others (fide Purkayashata et al. 2018). 
CommentDistribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Type species: Psammophis cerasogaster CANTOR 1839: 52 is the type species of the genus Xenochrophis GÜNTHER 1864.

Key: Cheng et al. 2021 provide a key to the genera of Xenochrophis sensu stricto, Atretium, and Fowlea.

Synonymy: Cheng et al. 2021 doubted the generic assignment of the members of Xenochrophis and accepted only cerasogaster as the only member of the genus. 
EtymologyThe generic nomen of Xenochrophis is presumably derived from the Greek xénos, meaning foreign, strange; chros, meaning color; and ophis, meaning snake. The generic nomen probably refers to the distinctive color pattern of this type species. The gender of this generic name is masculine. 
  • Ahmad, Faysal, Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam and Tania Khondakar. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Xenochrophis cerasogaster (painted keelback snake). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 578 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor, T. E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [part 1]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1839: 31-34 - get paper here
  • Cheng, Yu-Qi; Jin-Long Ren, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Jia-Tang Li 2021. On the Taxonomy of Atretium yunnanensis Anderson, 1879 (Squamata: Natricidae), with Redescriptions and Natural History Data of the Poorly Known Species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (4): 205-218 - get paper here
  • Ghosh, A; 2019. Xenochrophis cerasogaster (Painted Keelback) Diet. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 168 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn, Jesse L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., and A. Norhayati 2010. A CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE BANJARAN BINTANG, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 147-160 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1859. On the geographical distribution of reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 3: 221-237 - get paper here
  • HAKIM, JONATHAN; SCOTT TRAGESER, SHAHRIAR CAESAR RAHMAN, EVAN ARAMBUL, ANIMESH GHOSE, LACHLAN GILDING, … ASH WISCOVITCH. 2021. Geographic distribution: XENOCHROPHIS CERASOGASTER (Painted Keelback Snake). BANGLADESH: SYLHET DIVISION: Sylh et District. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 89. - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2002. Die Schlangen Pakistans [English edition as “A Guide to the snakes of Pakistan”]. Edition Chimaira (Frankfurt am Main), 265 pp. [review in HR 34: 400, Russ J Herp 12: 79] - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Malnate, E.V., and S.A. Menton 1965. A rediscription of the natricine snake Xenochrophis cerasogaster, with comments on its taxonomic states. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 117:19-41. - get paper here
  • Purkayastha J. 2013. An Amateur’s Guide to Reptiles of Assam. EBH Publishers (India) - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya, Madhurima Das, Gernot Vogel, Parimal C. Bhattacharjee and Saibal Sengupta. 2013. Comments on Xenochrophis cerasogaster (Cantor, 1839) (Serpentes: Natricidae) with remarks on its natural history and distribution. Hamadryad 36 (2): 149-156 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; JATIN KALITA, Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Robin Doley, MADHURIMA DAS 2018. A review of the relationships of Xenochrophis cerasogaster Cantor, 1839 (Serpentes: Colubridae) to its congeners. Zootaxa 4514 (1): 126-136, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.10 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; Madhurima Das, and Saibal Sengupta 2011. Urban herpetofauna: a case study in Guwahati City of Assam, India. Herpetology Notes 4: 195-202 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Sourav, Sharif Hossain and Jayaditya Purkayastha 2011. Xenochrophis cerasogaster (Cantor, 1839) (Serpentes: Colubridae): Distribution extension in Bangladesh. Check List 7 (3): 352-353 - get paper here
  • Swan, L.W., & Leviton, A.E. 1962. The herpetology of Nepal: a history, check list, and zoogeographical analysis of the herpetofauna. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 32 (6) (4.s.): 103-147. - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1907. Notes on Snakes collected in Fyzabad. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 101-129 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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