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Xenodermus javanicus REINHARDT, 1836

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Higher TaxaXenodermatidae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Xenodermine Snake, Java Tubercle Snake, Dragon snake
G: Java Höckernatter 
SynonymXenodermus javanicus REINHARDT 1836
Gonionotus plumbeus GRAY 1846 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854)
Xenodermus Javanicus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 45
Xenodermus javanica - JAN 1863
Xenoderma javanicum - MÜLLER 1887
Xenodermus javanicus — BOULENGER 1893: 175
Xenodermus javanicus — SMITH 1943: 124
Xenodermus javanicus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 399
Xenodermus javanicus — STUEBING & INGER 1999: 82
Xenodermus javanicus — GOWER et al. 2012: 76 
DistributionBurma (Myanmar),
Thailand, West Malaysia (Grandison 1977)
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo)

Type locality: Java Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ZMUC 5941 
CommentReproduction: oviparous.

Type species: Xenodermus javanicus REINHARDT 1836 is the type species of the genus Xenodermus REINHARDT 1836. Xenodermus is also the type species of the family Xenodermatidae GRAY 1849.

Diagnosis (family): Putative synapomorphies for the group are: maxilla suspended, in part, from a lat‐ eral process of the palatine; loose ligamentous con‐ nection between maxilla and prefrontal; and vertebral zygapophyses and neural spines with broad lateral ex‐ pansions (Bogert, 1964; McDowell, 1987; Ferrarezzi, 1994a,b). 
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1993. STANDARDIZED CRITERIA FOR THE RECOGNITION OF REPRODUCTIVE MODES IN SQUAMATE REPTILES. Herpetologica 49 (1): 118-132 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S.
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Grandison, A. G. C. 1978. Snakes of West Malaysia and Singapore. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 81 [1977]: 283-303 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie, Biologie und Okologie von Xenodermus javanicus Reinhardt. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 14: 168-174
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, J. T. 1836. Afhandling om Xenodermus javanicus. Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs forhandlinger. Kjobenhavn 3: 6-7
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stuebing,R.B. & INGER,R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124].
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
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