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Xenosaurus grandis (GRAY, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Xenosaurus grandis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaXenosauridae, Diploglossa, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesXenosaurus grandis arboreus LYNCH & SMITH 1965
Xenosaurus grandis grandis (GRAY 1856)
Xenosaurus grandis sanmartinensis WERLER & SHANNON 1961 
Common NamesKnob-scaled Lizard 
SynonymCubina grandis GRAY 1856: 270
Xenosaurus fasciatus PETERS 1861: 453
Xenosaurus grandis — COPE 1867: 322
Xenosaurus grandis — BOULENGER 1885: 250
Xenosaurus rackhami STUART 1941 (fide VILLA et al. 1988)
Xenosaurus grandis — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 208
Xenosaurus rackhami — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 208
Xenosaurus grandis — LINER 1994
Xenosaurus grandis — PÉREZ RAMOS et al. 2000
Xenosaurus grandis — WOOLRICH-PIÑA & SMITH 2012

Xenosaurus grandis arboreus LYNCH & SMITH 1965
Xenosaurus arboreus — NIETO-MONTES DE OCA et al. 2013

Xenosaurus grandis sanmartinensis WERLER & SHANNON 1961
Xenosaurus rackhami sanmartenensis [sic] — PHILIPPS 2003 
DistributionMexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca)

grandis: Veracruz; Type locality: Mexico, near Cordova [= Cordoba, Veracruz]

arboreus: Mexico (SE Oaxaca); Type locality: Mexico: Siera Madre, N of Zanatepec, Oaxaca;

sanmartinensis: Mexico (S Veracruz); Type locality: Mexico: Crater of Volcán San Martín, Veracruz; Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: BMNH
Holotype: UIMNH 56576 T. MacDougall; February, 1964 [arboreus]
Holotype: UIMNH 80687; J. Werler and J. Reid; January 25, 1954 [sanmartinensis] 
CommentSubspecies: Xenosaurus grandis agrenon KING & THOMPSON 1968 and Xenosaurus grandis rackhami STUART 1941 have been elevated to full species status. King and Thompson (1968) reported intergrades between X. g. grandis and X. g. rackhami from several localities in north-central Oaxaca.

Distribution: see map in WOOLRICH-PIÑA & SMITH 2012.

Type species: Xenosaurus fasciatus PETERS 1861 is the type species of the genus Xenosaurus PETERS 1861. Xenosaurus PETERS 1861 is the type species of the family Xenosauridae 
References
  • Ballinger, R.E., G.R. Smith, and J.A. Lemos-Espinal 2000. Xenosaurus (Gray) Knob-scaled Lizards. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (712): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Ballinger,R.E.,J.A.Lemos-Espinal, and G.R. Smith 2000. Xenosaurus grandis (Gray) Knob-scaled Lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (713): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Barrows, Shirley;Smith, Hobart M. 1947. The skeleton of the lizard Xenosaurus grandis (Gray). Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 31 (12): 227-281 - get paper here
  • Bhullar, B-A. S. 2011. The Power and Utility Of Morphological Characters In Systematics: A Fully Resolved Phylogeny of Xenosaurus and Its Fossil Relatives (Squamata: Anguimorpha). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 160 (3): 65–181 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Camarillo R., José L. 1990. Xenosaurus grandis en el Estado de Hidalgo, México. Boletín de la Sociedad Herpetológica Mexicana 2 (2): 17-18 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. Fifth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18 [1866]: 317-323 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. Notice of a new species of nocturnal lizard from Mexico. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (2) 18: 270 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Haas, Georg 1960. On the trigeminus muscles of the lizards Xenosaurus grandis and Shinisaurus crocodilurus. American Museum novitates (2017) - get paper here
  • King, F. W., & THOMPSON, F. G. 1968. A review of the American lizards of the genus Xenosaurus Peters. Bull. Florida St. Mus., Biol. Sci. 12: 93-123. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Lynch, John D.; Smith, Hobart M. 1965. A new species of Xenosaurus (Reptilia: Xenosauridae) from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences 68 (1): 163-172
  • Macey, J.R. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics, tRNA evolution, and historical biogeography in anguid lizards and related taxonomic families. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 12 (3): 250-272 - get paper here
  • Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia, Paul F. Doherty, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, and J. Gastón Zamora-Abrego 2013. Survivorship, Growth, and Detection of a Knob-scaled Lizard in Queretaro, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology Mar 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1: 156-161. - get paper here
  • Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrián; Uri O. García-Vázquez, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega and Walter Schmidt-Bal 2013. A new species of Xenosaurus (Squamata: Xenosauridae) from the Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve of Querétaro, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 84: 485-498 - get paper here
  • Pérez Ramos, Edmundo; Lucia Saldaña de la Riva; Jonathan A. Campbell 2000. A new allopatric species of Xenosaurus (Squamata: Xenosauridae) from Guerrero, Mexico. Herpetologica 56 (4): 500-506 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1861. Eine neue Gattung von Eidechsen, Xenosaurus fasciatus aus Mexico. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1861 (April): 453-454 - get paper here
  • Phillips, C.A. 2003. HERPETOLOGICAL TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: AN UPDATE TO THE PRIMARY TYPES. University of illinois Museumof Natural History, 17 pp.
  • Stuart,L.C. 1941. A new species of Xenosaurus from Guatemala. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54: 47-48. - get paper here
  • Werler, John E. & Shannon, Frederick A. 1961. Two new lizards (genera Abronia and Xenosaurus) from the Los Tuxtlas Range of Veracruz, Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences 64 (2): 123-132
  • Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A. and Geoffrey R. Smith 2012. A New Species of Xenosaurus from the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. Herpetologica 68 (4): 551-559. - get paper here
 
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