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Xenoxybelis boulengeri (PROCTER, 1923)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Southern Sharpnose Snake 
SynonymOxybelis boulengeri PROCTER 1923: 1062
Oxybelis boulengeri — KEISER 1989
Oxybelis boulengeri — DUELLMAN 1991
Xenoxybelis boulengeri — MACHADO 1993: 99
Oxybelis boulengeri — LEHR 2002: 205
Xenoxybelis boulengeri — COSTA PRUDENTE et al. 2008
Philodryas boulengeri — ZAHER et al. 2009 (by implication)
Philodryas georgeboulengeri GRAZZIOTIN, et al. 2012 (nom. nov.)
Philodryas georgeboulengeri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 550
Philodryas georgeboulengeri — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Xenoxybelis boulengeri — ARREDONDO et al. 2020
Xenoxybelis boulengeri — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionBolivia, Peru, Brazil (Amazonas)

Type locality: Trinidad, River Mamore, Bolivia.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.86 
CommentHas been considered as a synonym of X. argenteus by most authors but revalidated by KEISER (1989).

According to Article 53.3 of the Code, Philodryas boulengeri Werner 1909, a junior synonym of Philodryas mattogrossensis Koslowsky, 1898 and Philodryas boulengeri (Procter, 1923) are secondary homonyms because both meet the criterion of availability (see Articles 10.6 and 11 of the Code). According to the Principle of Priority (Article 23), Philodryas boulengeri (Procter, 1923) is the junior secondary homonym. Considering that both names do not fall into any of the exceptions listed in Articles 23.7.3, 23.8 and 23.9, and that Philodryas boulengeri (Procter, 1923) has no known available and potentially valid junior synonyms, its specific epithet must be replaced by a new substitution name (Articles 57.3.1. and 59.1) [GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012]. The homonymy was resolved by the resurrection of Xenoxybelis by Arredondo et al. 2020 and MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020, hence the name returns to boulengeri.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after George Albert Boulenger (1858-1937), herpetologist at the British Museum of Natural History, London. 
  • Arredondo, J. C., Grazziotin, F. G., Manfrini, G. J. S., Rodrigues, M. T. U., Bonatto, S. L., & Zaher, H. E. D. 2020. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Philodryadini Cope, 1886 (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Rediscovering the diversity of the South American Racers. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 60, e20206053-e20206053 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS One 9 (8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Keiser, E. D. Jr. 1989. Oxybelis boulengeri Procter, a valid species of vine snake from South America. Copeia 1989 (4): 764-768 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lima Moraes, L. J. C. de, do Nascimento Rainha, R., de Pinho Werneck, F., de Souza Oliveira, A. F., Gascon, C., & de Carvalho, V. T. 2022. Amphibians and reptiles from a protected area in western Brazilian Amazonia (Reserva Extrativista do Baixo Juruá). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 62, e202262054-e202262054 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Procter, JOAN B. 1923. On new and rare reptiles from South America. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923: 1061-1068. - get paper here
  • PRUDENTE, ANA LUCIA DA COSTA; MARCIO ANDRE AMORIM DA SILVA, WALDIMA ALVES DA ROCHA & FRANCISCO LUIS FRANCO 2008. Morphological variation in Xenoxybelis boulengeri (Procter, 1923) (Serpentes, Xenodontinae, Philodryadini). Zootaxa 1743: 53-61 - get paper here
  • Rivas, L. R., Eversole, C. B., & Powell, R. L. 2023. Urban herpetofauna of Trinidad, Beni Department, Bolivia. Herpetology Notes, 16, 399-410
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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