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Zamenis persicus (WERNER, 1913)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Persian Rat Snake
G: Persische Kletternatter 
SynonymColuber longissimus var. persica WERNER 1913: 23
Coluber longissimus var. nigra NIKOLSKY 1907: 293 [1905]
Elaphe longissima persica — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928
Elaphe persica [NILSON & ANDREN 1984]
Elaphe persica — SCHULZ 1996
Elaphe persica — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Zamenis persicus — UTIGER et al. 2002
Zamenis persica — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Richardwellsus persicus — HOSER 2012 (preliminary)
Zamenis persicus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 809 
DistributionSE Azerbaijan (Lenkoran), N Iran

Type locality: Iran: Mazandaran, Barferush (Werner, 1913)  
TypesHolotype: ZMH
Holotype: ZISP 10334 [nigra] 
CommentHomonymy: Zamenis persicus JAN 1863 appears to be different from Z. persicus WERNER 1913. However, the type is lost and thus Z. persicus JAN 1863 becomes a nomen oblitum (SCHÄTTI et al. 2010).

Distribution: For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution in Persia (now: Iran). 
  • ANANJEVA, NATALIA B.; KONSTANTIN D. MILTO, ANDREI V. BARABANOV, EVGENY A. GOLYNSKY 2020. An annotated type catalogue of amphibians and reptiles collected by Nikolay A. Zarudny in Iran and Middle Asia. Zootaxa 4722 (2): 101–128 - get paper here
  • Bennemann, Rolf 2007. Zamenis persicus (Werner 1913) in der Terrarienhaltung. Ophidia 1 (1): 28-31 - get paper here
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Geniez, Philippe 2018. Snakes of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Princeton University Press, 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the Colubrinae genera Zamenis and Orthriophis with the creation of two new genera (Serpentes: Colubridae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 11: 59-64 - get paper here
  • Joger, U.; Fritz, U.; Guicking, D.; Kalyabina-Hauf, S.; Nagy, Z.T. & Wink, M. 2007. Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns. Zoologischer Anzeiger 246: 293–313 - get paper here
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • Lenk, P.; Joger, U. & Wink, M. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among European ratsnakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons. Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (3): 329-339 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R., and L. Müller. 1928. Liste der Amphibien und Reptilian Europas. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main. 41: 1-62.
  • Nilson, Göran; Andrén, Claes 1984. A taxonomic account of the Iranian ratsnakes of the Elaphe longissima species-group. Amphibia-Reptilia 5 (2): 157-171 - get paper here
  • Philippen, Hans-Dieter P 2014. Vielfalt ist Trumpf. Draco 16 (57): 6-15 - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, M. 2018. Snakes of Iran. [in Farsi] Tehran: Iranshenasi, 496 pp. [2017 ?] - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Salvi D, Mendes J, Carranza S, Harris DJ. 2018. Evolution, biogeography and systematics of the western Palaearctic Zamenis ratsnakes. Zoologica Scripta 47 (4): 441-461 - get paper here
  • Schätti, Beat; Frank Tillack, Klaus-Dieter Schulz 2010. History, status, and validity of the Racer Zamenis persicus Jan, 1863, and the scientific name of the Ratsnake Z. persicus (Werner, 1913) (Squamata, Colubridae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 86 (2): 275-281 - get paper here
  • Schulz, K. D. 1996. Eine Monographie der Schlangengattung Elaphe Fitzinger. Bushmaster, Berg (CH): 1-460
  • Schulz, Klaus-Dieter 1996. A monograph of the colubrid snakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger. Koeltz Scientific Books, 439 pp.
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Tuniyev, B.S.; N.L. Orlov, N.B. Ananjeva and A.L. Aghasyan 2019. Snakes of the Caucasus: taxonomic diversity, distribution, conservation. St. Petersburg, Moscow. KMK Scientific Press. 2019. 276 pp. - get paper here
  • Utiger, Urs, Notker Helfenberger, Beat Schätti, Catherine Schmidt, Markus Ruf and Vincent Ziswiler 2002. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of Old World and New World ratsnakes, Elaphe Auct., and related genera (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 9 (2): 105-124. - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1913. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Frösche des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Reptilien der Ostafrika-Expedition der Hamburger Geographischen Gesellschaft 1911/12. Leiter: Dr. E. Obst. Reptilien und Amphibien von Formosa. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., 30 [1912], 2. Beiheft: 1-39, 40-45, 45-51 - get paper here
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