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Zamenis situla (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Zamenis situla - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Leopard Snakes, European Ratsnake, Leopard ratsnake
G: Leopardnatter
Croatian: crvenkrpica
Italian: colubro leopardino 
SynonymColuber Situla LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Coluber leopardinus BONAPARTE 1834
Callopeltis leopardina — FITZINGER 1834
Ablabes quadrilineatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 319 (fide WALLACH)
Natrix leopardina — COPE 1862: 338
Coronella quadrilineata — JAN 1863: 247
Callopeltis quadrilineatus — SCHREIBER 1875: 277
Callopeltis quadrilineatus — BOETTGER 1876: 62
Callopeltis quadrilineatus — BÖTTCHER 1877: 286
Coluber leopardinus — BOULENGER 1894: 41
Coluber leopardinus — BOULENGER 1913
Coluber leopardinus — VEITH 1991
Elaphe situla — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Elaphe situla — SCHULZ 1996: 241
Zamenis situla — UTIGER et al. 2002
Elaphe situla — KUMLUTAS et al. 2004
Zamenis situlus — SCHLÜTER 2006
Zamenis situla — SPEYBROECK 2007
Zamenis situla — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Zamenis situla — WALLACH et al. 2014: 810
Zamenis situla — KWET & TRAPP 2015 
DistributionS Italy (south to Ofanto river),
coastal Croatia (including some adriatic islands),
Hercegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia,
Turkey, Greece (Crete, Syros, Milos: Kimolos, Andros, Kynthos, Paros, Seriphos, Thira, Tinos, Kea, Lesbos, Syphnos, Chios, Corfu = Corfou, Samos, Rhodos, Chalki), Cyprus,
Malta, Bulgaria (Black Sea coast, Tundza river),
Albania, Ukraine (Krym).

Type locality: in error, see comment (Linnaeus, 1758); Restricted to Turkey: Izmir (Bodenheimer, 1944)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: NRM (= NHRM) (Stockholm). The type is apparently identical with Coluber leopardinus (Andersson 1899: 29). 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). Occurs as spotted and striped forms (MATTISON 1995: 124).

Distribution: The type locality, “Egypt” (Linnaeus 1758) is in error. Reports from Cyprus questionable (BAIER et al. 2009 and pers. comm.). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
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