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Zootoca vivipara (LICHTENSTEIN, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Zootoca vivipara - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesZootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Zootoca vivipara pannonica (LAC & KLUCH 1968)
Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis (PERELESHIN & TERENTJEV 1963)
Zootoca vivipara vivipara (JACQUIN 1787)
Zootoca vivipara carniolica (MAYER, BÖHME, TIEDEMANN & BISCHOFF 2000) 
Common NamesE: Viviparous Lizard, European common lizard
G: Waldeidechse 
SynonymSeps? atra SCHRANK in SCHRANK & MOLL 1785
Lacerta vivipara VON JACQUIN 1787: 33 (nom. nud.)
Lacertus cinereus LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta oedura SHEPPARD 1804
Lacerta montana MIKAN in STURM 1805
Lacerta nigra WOLF in STURM 1805
Lacerta crocea WOLF in STURM 1805
Lacerta fragilis PALMSTRUCH & SWARTZ 1808
Lac. unicolor KUHL 1820
Lac. ptychodes KUHL 1820
Lacerta pyrrhogaster MERREM 1820
Lacerta vivipara LICHTENSTEIN 1823
Lacerta schreibersiana MILNE-EDWARDS 1829
Lacerta Schreibersiana var. a. fusca GACHET 1832
Lacerta Schreibersiana var. b. lutea GACHET 1832
Lacerta chrysogastra ANDRZEJOWSKI 1832
Lacerta crocea — EVERSMANN 1834: 347
Lacerta de jacquin COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta de guérin COCTEAU 1835
Zootoca montana TSCHUDI 1837
Zootoca alpina TSCHUDI 1837
Zootica [sic] vivpara — STORK 1838: 413
Lacerta vivipara — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 204
“Lacerta isidori Geoffr.” (sic!) SCHINZ 1840
Zootoca vivipara — WELLS 1846: 449
Zootoca vivipara var. nigra — GRAY 1857: 107
Lacerta vivipara var. pallida FATIO 1872
Lacerta vivipara — BOULENGER 1887: 23
Lacerta vivipara var. carniolica WERNER 1897 (nomen nudum)
Lacerta (Zootoca ) vivipara var. melanogastra PRAZÁK 1898
Lacerta vivipara var. barabensis KASHENKO 1902
Lacerta vivipara — STEJNEGER 1907: 251
Lacerta vivipara var. gedulyi FEJERVÁRYI 1923
Lacerta herseyi AUSTIN 1992: 35
Lacerta vivipara — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Zootoca vivipara — MAYER & BISCHOFF 1996
Zootoca vivipara — NECAS et al. 1997
Zootoca vivipara — BISCHOFF 2005
Lacerta vivipara — SZCZERBAK 2003
Zootoca vivipara — ARNOLD et al. 2007
Zootoca vivipara vivipara — CORNETTI et al. 2014

Zootoca vivipara carniolica (MAYER, BÖHME, TIEDEMANN & BISCHOFF 2000)
non Lacerta vivipara var. carniolica WERNER 1897 (nomen nudum)
Lacerta vivipara carniolica MAYER, BÖHME, TIEDEMANN & BISCHOFF 2000
Zootoca vivipara carniolica — BÖHME & RÖDDER 2006
Zootoca vivipara carniolica — BISCHOFF 2007
Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara carniolica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Zootoca vivipara carniolica — CORNETTI et al. 2014

Zootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Lacerta vivipara vasconiae OSENEGG 1995
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi — CORNETTI et al. 2014

Zootoca vivipara pannonica (LAC & KLUCH 1968)
Lacerta vivipara pannonica LAC & KLUCH 1968
Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara pannonica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis (PERELESHIN & TERENTJEV 1963)
Lacerta vivipara sachalinensis PERELJESHIN & TERENTJEV 1963
Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis — MAYER & BÖHME 2000
Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara sachalinensis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionNorway, Sweden, Finland
Switzerland, Germany, France, Austria, Denmark,
Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary,
Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria,
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg,
England, Ireland, N Spain
In the north beyond the Arctic Circle, in the south up to N Italy,
Russia (E Siberia, Sakhalin Island), Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Mongolia,
Japan (Hokkaido Island)
China (Xinjiang [Altai region] and Heilongjiang)

Type locality: Schneeberg near Vienna, Austria

carniolica: possibly larger parts of Slovenia, NE Italy, S Austria (Kärnten: Doberbach Tal, Krainer Alpen), NW Croatia. Type locality: Mt. Sneznik: 8 km SE Masun village, 1250 m elevation, Slovenia.

louislantzi: N Spain, SW France; type locality: Pla de Beret (Vall d’Aràn, Lleida). Spain.

pannonica: W/S Balkan peninsula; Type locality: Boťany, Kapu-sansky Forest in Eastern Slovakia).

sachalinensis: Poland, Belarus (Carpathians), Russia east through (Sakhalin island), Japan (n Hokkaido); Type locality: Sakhalin island. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ZFMK 68438, paratypes in NMW and MCSNT [carniolica]
Holotype: MNCN 44290, Paratypes in ZFMK, MNCN, NMW and Coll. O. Arribas, holotype in MNCN [louislantzi] 
CommentNomenclature: Zootoca has been considered as a subgenus of Lacerta, but more recently as valid genus. VON JACQUIN 1787 did not use the name Lacerta vivipara in order to describe a new species but to report the fact that the species is viviparous. Hence, VON JACQUIN 1787 is not the author of Lacerta vivipara as indicated by much of the older literature but rather LICHTENSTEIN 1823 who provided the first description of the species (SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011).

Synonymy: partly after SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011. Note that Lacerta (= Zootoca) vivipara carniolica MAYER et al. 2000 is not identical to Lacerta vivipara var. carniolica WERNER, 1897, which is a nomen nudum. The validity of Z. v. sachalinensis has been questioned by GUILLAUME et al. (2006). The description of “Lacerta herseyi” is certainly not sufficient to establish a new species. His description seems to be based on an aberrant L. vivipara that displays an unusual behavior (“leaping lizard”).

Reproduction: Lacerta vivipara is viviparous throughout most of its range, but oviparous in the extreme southwest portion (Heulin et al., 1989). However, although lizards from the oviparous and viviparous populations are similar in many respects, they produce significant numbers of embryonic malformations when hybridized in the laboratory (Heulin et al., 1989). Zootoca vivipara louislantzi and carniolica are oviparous. Crosses between oviparous and viviparous populations of Zootoca (Lacerta) vivipara produce an F1 generation with an ‘‘intermediate’’ phenotype (Arrayago et al. 1996, Murphy & Thompson 2011), in which females retain embryos in utero for longer than oviparous females and embryos are surrounded by a thin, transparent shell.

In Z. vivipara, male mortality and emigration are not higher under male-biased adult sex ratio. Rather, an excess of adult males begets aggression toward adult females, whose survival and fecundity drop, along with their emigration rate (GALLIARD et al. 2005).

Conservation: Reptile of the year 2006. Zootoca vivipara has been called the “most successful reptile species of the world”, based on its distribution and the range of climates it inhabits (GUILLAUME et al. 2006).

Type species: Lacerta vivipara LICHTENSTEIN 1823 is the type species of the genus Zootoca WAGLER 1830.

References: see SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011 for an extended bibliography. 
References
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