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Ablepharus bivittatus (MENETRIES, 1832)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Twin-striped Skink, Two-Streaked Snake-Eyed Skink
G: Gestreiftes Natternauge 
SynonymScincus bivittatus MENETRIES 1832: 64
Ablepharus Menestriesii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 811
Ablepharus bivittatus — STRAUCH 1868
Ablepharus bivittatus — GREER 1974: 9
Ablepharus bivittatus bivittatus — BISCHOFF 1978
Ablepharus bivittatus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Ablepharus bivittatus — SZCZERBAK 2003
Ablepharus bivittatus — ŠMÍD et al. 2014
Asymblepharus bivittatus — BOZKURT et al. 2020 
DistributionE Turkey [Chernov 1949], NW/N Iran (and former USSR), Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Armenia

Type locality: “Perimbal sur les montagnes de Talyche” [= Talish Mountains, SE Azerbaijan]

elevation: between 2,300 and 3300 m.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: ZISP 565, designated by Eremchenko and Szczerbak, 1986:71), originally as syntypes ZISP (ZIL) 563-565.
Holotype: IBSP 5395 (Instituto Butantan, São Paulo) [triseriatus]
Holotype: MLS (Bogotá, Colombia) [striatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “(22)-24 Schuppenlängsreihen um die Mitte des Körpers; 3 Schläfenschilder in der erste Reihe hinter dem Auge. Präfrontalia stoßen in der Mitte (in der Regel) mit Naht zusammen. An den Körperseiten je ein heller Streifen von Schuppenbreite in der Fortsetzung der Oberlippenschilder.” (from Wettstein 1960: 62, based on a translation from Russian to German, originally in Terentjev & Cernov). 
CommentSubspecies: Ablepharus bivittatus lindbergi WETTSTEIN 1960 is now considered as a valid species.

Distribution: see maps in SMID et al. 2014, Bozkurt et al. 2020: 135 (Fig. 1).

Generic allocation. A. bivittatus shares diagnostic characteristics with Asymblepharus, except the transversal series of dorsal scales at the midtrunk 22–24. Hence, A. bivittatus must be classified as Asymblepharus bivittatus comb. nov. based on the morphological and molecular analysis (Bozkurt et al. 2020). Note, however, that Bozkurt et al. did not include any samples from Asymblepharus in their phylogenetic analysis, hence their conclusion seems a bit preliminary. 
EtymologyNamed after “bi-” = two or dual and Latin “vitta, -ae” = band or stripe.  
References
  • Ananjeva, NB, Orlov NL; Khalikov RG; Darevsky IS; Ryabov IS & Barabanov AV 2006. The Reptiles of North Eurasia. Taxonomic Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status [this comprises the territory of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia]. Pensoft Series Faunistica 47, 250 pp.
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • BARABANOV, ANDREI & KONSTANTIN MILTO 2017. An annotated type catalogue of the anguid, dibamid, scincid and varanid lizards in the Department of Herpetology, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (Reptilia: Sauria: Anguidae, Dibamidae, Scincidae and Varanida Zootaxa 4244 (1): 065–078 - get paper here
  • Bayless, M.K. 1994. Zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30 (2): 109-118 - get paper here
  • Bennett,Daniel 2000. The density and abundance of juvenile Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria: Varandiae) in the coastal plain of Ghana. Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (3): 301-306 - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 1978. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Echsen des Kaukasus. Salamandra 14 (4): 178-202 - get paper here
  • BOZKURT, Emin and Kurtuluş OLGUN 2020. Taxonomic investigation of the genus Ablepharus (Sauria; Scincidae) with molecular and morphological methods in Anatolian populations. Turk J Zool 44: 134-145. - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R. 1988. Life History Note: Varanus exanthematicus albigularis: Reproduction. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (35): 39-39 - get paper here
  • Brattstrom, B.H. 1955. Pleistocene Lizards from San Josecito Cavern, Mexico, with Description of a New Species Copeia 1955 (2): 133-134. - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. 1999. Geographic Distribution. Prosymna ambigua bocagii Boulenger, 1897 Bocage's Shovel-snout. African Herp News (29): 44 - get paper here
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  • Cupul-Magaña, Fabio Germán 2012. Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792), Apalone spinifera emoryi (Le Sueur, 1827) y Gopherus berlandieri (Agassiz, 1857): reptiles exóticos en el área urbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (1): - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Eremchenko, V.K.; Shcherbak, N.N. 1980. Ablepharus lindbergi sp. n. (Reptilia, Sauria, Scincidae) from Afghanistan - a new species of snake-eyed lizard. Vestnik Zoologii 1980 1980 (6): 84-86
  • Laurent,R.F. 1964. A new subspecies of Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria, Varanidae). Breviora (199): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Ljubisvljevic, Katarina, Georg Dzukic and Milos L. Kalezic 2002. Morphological differentiation of the Snake-eyed Skink Ablepharus kitaibelii (Bibron & Bory, 1933), in the north-western part of the species' range: systematic implications (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae). Herpetozoa 14 (3/4):107-121 - get paper here
  • Ménétries, E. 1832. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie recueillis dans un voyage au caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. L’Académie Impériale des Sciences, St. -Pétersbourg - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
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  • Röder, A. & H.-G. Horn 1994. Über zwei Nachzuchten des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30 (2): 97-108 - get paper here
  • Sanchooli, Nasser 2016. Modeling the potential distribution of Ablepharus bivittatus (MÉNÉTRIÉS, 1832), in Iran. Herpetozoa 29 (1/2): 63-68 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • Strauch, A. 1868. Ueber die Arten del' Eidechsen-Gattung Ablepharus (Fitz.). Bull. Ac. Sc. St. Petel'sb. xii: 359-371 or<br />Mél. Biol. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg 6: 553-570 - get paper here
  • Switak, Karl H. 2003. Field notes for Varanus exanthematicus in West Africa. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 38(7):136-137 - get paper here
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Wesiak, K. 2006. Zur Pflege und Nachzucht des westafrikanischen Steppenwarans Varanus (Polydaedalus) exanthematicus (BOSC, 1792). Elaphe 14 (3): 21-34
  • Wettstein, O. 1960. Lacertilia aus Afghanistan. Contribution a l’etude de la faune d’Afghanistan. 3 [in German]. Zool. Anz. 165: 58-63
  • Yeboah, S. 1994. Aspects of the biology of two sympatric species of monitor lizards Varanus niloticus and Varanus exanthematicus (Reptilia, Sauria) in Ghana. African Journal of Ecology 32 (4): 331-333 - get paper here
  • Yildiz, Mehmet Zülfü; Nasit Igci, Bahadir Akman, Bayram Göcmen 2018. Results of a herpetological survey in the Province of Ağrı (East Anatolia, Turkey) (Anura; Testudines; Squamata). Herpetozoa 31 (1/2): 47 - 60 - get paper here
 
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