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Adolfus jacksoni (BOULENGER, 1899)

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Eremiadinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Jackson’s Forest Lizard
G: Jacksons Gebirgseidechse 
SynonymLacerta jacksoni BOULENGER 1899: 96
Lacerta jacksoni — LÖNNBERG in SJÖSTEDT 1907
Lacerta jacksonii — BOULENGER 1920: 295
Lacerta jacksoni — LOVERIDGE 1936: 59
Lacerta (Podarcis) jacksoni — WITTE & LAURENT 1942: 167
Lacerta jacksoni — WELCH 1982
Adolfus jacksoni — ARNOLD 1989
Adolfus jacksoni — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 17
Adolfus jacksoni — RAZETTI & MSUYA 2002
Adolfus jacksoni — GREENBAUM et al. 2011
Adolfus jacksoni — SPAWLS et al 2018: 182 
DistributionKenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, E Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire)

Type locality: Kibonoto = Kibongoto, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (see also comment)  
Reproductionreproduction: oviparous, 3-5 eggs per clutch 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.9.2.99 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisOriginal description: “Head rather long, much depressed. Rostral not entering the nnostril: a single postnasal: four upper labials anterior to the sobocular a series of granules between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries; occipital moderate, a little shorter than the interparietal; temple granular, with a feebly enlarged tympanic plate. A distinct gular fold ; 25 gular scales on a line between the collar and the third pair of chin-shields; collar even-edged, composed of 10 plates. Dorsal scales rhomboidal, keeled, juxtaposed or subimbricate; laterals a little smaller ; 40 scales across the middle of the body ; 2 or 3 lateral scales correspond to the length of a ventral plate. Ventrals tetragonal, broader than long, in 8 longitudinal and 24 transverse series; the plates of the series next to the median nearly twice as broad as the one on the inner side and once and a half the one on the outer side; the outermost plates very small. Preanal with a large plate in front of it. The hind limb reaches the collar-fold. Scales on upper surface of tibia smaller than dorsals. Femoral pores 16-17. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled, with truncate or obtusely pointed posterior border. Brown above, darker on the sides, which are stellate with small white, black-edged ocelli; upper surface of head and back with small black spots: a large black spot on each upper labial; uniform whitish beneath.” (Boulenger 1899) 
CommentTerra typica: “Ravine Station, Mauritania Mts., Kenya”, according to other authors.

Synonymy: Lacerta jacksoni kibonotensis LÖNNBERG 1907: 5 has been removed from the synonymy of A. jacksoni and revalidated as full species by Greenbaum et al. 2018.

Comparisons: Arnold 1989 presents a list of 51 characters across 4 species of Adolfus (A. jacksoni, alleni, africanus, vauereselli). 
EtymologyNamed after Sir Frederick John Jackson (1859-1929), English administrator, diplomat, explorer, naturalist, ornithologist, and the first Governor of the new Kenya colony (1889), and later Governor of Uganda (1911-1918). 
  • Angel, Fernand 1925. Résultats Scientifiques. Vertebrata. Reptiles et Batraciens. [Mabuia (Mabuiopsis) jeanneli, Lygosoma graueri quinquedigitata, Ablepharus massaiensis]. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). - Paris, 2: 1-63.
  • Arnold, E. N. 1989. Towards a phylogeny and biogeography of the Lacertidae: relationships within an Old-World family of lizards derived from morphology. Bulletin of the British Museum (NATURAL HISTORY) ZOOLOGY 55 (2): 209-257 - get paper here
  • Arnold, E.N. 1989. Systematics and adaptive radiation of Equatorial African lizards assigned to the genera Adolfus, Bedriagaia, Gastropholis, Holaspis and Lacerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae) Journal of Natural History 23: 525-555 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 1990. Übersicht der Arten und Unterarten der Familie Lacertidae 1. Die Gattungen Acanthodactylus, Adolfus, Algyroides und Australolacerta. Die Eidechse 1 (1): 18-23 - get paper here
  • BOSCH, H. IN DEN 1996. Bemerkungen zur Gelegezahl von Adolfus jacksoni (BOULENGER, 1899). Die Eidechse 7 (18): 13-1) - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1899. Description of two new lizards from the interior of British East Africa. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1899: 96-98 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1920. Monograph of the Lacertidae, vol. 1. British Museum (London) - get paper here
  • Bretzel, J. & Gebler, J. 2019. Die Taita Hills - ein herpetologischer Bericht aus einer fragmentierten Landschaft. Elaphe 2019 (2): 80-85
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • GOLDBERG, S.R. 2009. Reproduction of Jackson’s Forest Lizard, Adolfus jacksoni (Squamata: Lacertidae. African Herp News (48): 5-7 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R., &BURSEY, C.R. 2009. Adolfus jacksoni. Endoparasites. African Herp News (48): 16-17 - get paper here
  • GREENBAUM, ELI; CESAR O. VILLANUEVA, CHIFUNDERA KUSAMBA, MWENEBATU M. ARISTOTE and WILLIAM R. BRANCH 2011. A molecular phylogeny of Equatorial African Lacertidae, with the description of a new genus and species from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 913–942 - get paper here
  • Greenbaum, Eli; Stephanie Dowell Beer, Daniel F. Hughes, Philipp Wagner, Christopher G. Anderson, Cesar O. Villanueva, Patrick K. Malonza, Chifundera Kusamba, Wandege M. Muninga, Mwenebatu M. Aristote, and William R. Branch 2018. Phylogeography of Jackson's Forest Lizard Adolfus jacksoni (Sauria: Lacertidae) Reveals Cryptic Diversity in the Highlands of East Africa. Herpetological Monographs 32 (1): 51-68 - get paper here
  • Köhler, J., P. Wagner, S. Visser & W. Böhme 2003. New country records of Adolfus africanus (Sauria: Lacertidae) – a rain forest lizard with disjunct distribution? Salamandra 39 (3-4): 241-248 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, E. 1907. Reptilia and Batrachia. In: Sjöstedt, Y. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebenden Massaisteppen 1905-1906. - Upsala, No. 4, 1-18 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1923. Notes on East African lizards collected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923: 935-969 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Über eine herpetologische Sammlung aus dem Gebiete des Njarasa-Grabens Ost-Afrikas. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen 2 (1): 1-9 [no page numbers]
  • Poblete, Armand G. H. 2002. Adolfus jacksoni Boulenger, 1899 Jackson's Lizard. Morphology. African Herp News (34): 23-24 - get paper here
  • Razzetti, E. & Msuya, C.A. 2002. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Publ. Ed. Negri Istituto, Oikos, Varese, 84 pp.
  • RICHTER, K. 1996. Kurze Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Zucht von Adolfus jacksoni (BOULENGER, 1899) im Terrarium. Die Eidechse 7 (17): 34-36 - get paper here
  • Roelke, Corey E. & Smith, E.N. 2010. Herpetofauna, Parc National des Volcans, North Province, Republic of Rwanda. Check List 6 (4): 525-531 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2008. Adolfus jacksoni (BOULENGER 1899) - Jacksons Gebirgseidechse. Die Eidechse 19 (3): 76-84 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S. & Rotich, D. 1997. An annotated checklist of the lizards of Kenya. J. East African Nat. Hist. 86: 61-83
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Wagner, P., E. Greenbaum, P. Malonza & B. Branch 2014. Resolving sky island speciation in populations of East African Adolfus alleni (Sauria, Lacertidae). Salamandra 50 (1): 1-17 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
  • WITTE, G.-F. DE & R.F. LAURENT 1942. Liste des Lacertidae du Congo Belge et description d’une espèce nouvelle. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, Bruxelles, 36 (2): 165-180 - get paper here
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