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Agamura cruralis (BLANFORD, 1874)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Spider Gecko
G: Spinnengecko 
SynonymAgamura cruralis BLANFORD 1874
Agamura cruralis — BOULENGER 1885: 50
Agamura cruralis — ALCOCK & FINN 1897
Agamura cruralis — WERNER 1938: 267
Agamura cruralis — SCHLEICH 1977: 127
Agamura persica cruralis — SZCZERBAK & GOLUBEV 1986: 211
Agamura persica cruralis — SZCZERBAK & GOLUBEV 1996: 206
Agamura cruralis — HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2017
Agamura cruralis — HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2018
Agamura cruralis — HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2019 
DistributionE Iran, Pakistan

Type locality: Bahu Kalat; Zamran; Nlhmg River; Askan, near Bampusht, Iran; and Ras Malan; Mand; Pakistan; restricted to Bahu Kalat and Askan, Baluchistan by Smith 1935: 61.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH (= BMNH 1946.8.25.33-35), MCZ 7136; ZMB 10234; ZSI 3487, 3501, 6811-6812; Bauer & Günther 1991 “regard the BMNH type for which Boulenger 1885 provided measurements as the lectotype.” (withouth saying which specimen this was); see also Das et al. 1998). 
DiagnosisDefinition (genus): Limbs slender; digits slender, clawed, cylindrical at base, with smooth transverse lamellae beneath, angularly bent, the distal phalanges slightly compressed, forming an angle with the basal portion ofthe digits, the claw between two enlarged scales; no enlarged plate-like postmental shields; dorsal scales small granules intermixed with larger tubercles; tail cylindrical, slender, diminishing suddenly in size after the basal portion (Fig. J in key), not longer than head and body; basal caudal autotomy only; pupil vertical (Anderson 1999: 129).

Diagnosis: (cruralis) Dorsal tubercles sharply keeled; large tubercles presented top of the thigh; long forelimb; number of ventral scales lower than 32 a cross midbody; head large; number of scales between tubercles 4; color dark brown (from HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2017)

In the three syntypes of Agamura cruralis Blanford in the British Museum, the rostral is only partially divided; there are five dorsal crossbars in those in which the pattern can still be seen; tubercles are lacking on the hind limbs; the subcaudals are not divided into two longitudinal rows except at the flattened tip. I do not find any clear indication of preanal pores in these specimens. A specimen from Cheh Mossullum (FMNH 170934) agrees with Blanford's description of A. cruralis in having the rostral only partially divided and lacking tubercles on the limbs. It is a male with two preanal pores and I do not find other consistent differences between this and other specimens.
Szczerbak and Golubev (1986:211; 1996:206) stated that in Iranian Baluchistan and to the north up to the Sistan basin and the Dasht-e Lut, enlarged chin shields appear in this species. They noted that these specimens had some divergence in other characters as well, and while a shortage ofspecimens did not permit final taxonomic resolution, they suggested that recognition of a subspecies, A. persica cruralis, was justified (Anderson 1999: 132). 
CommentType species: Agamura cruralis BLANFORD 1874 is the type species of the genus Agamura BLANFORD 1874.

Synonymy: Smith (1935) synonymized A. persica and A. cruralis. This was maintained by Anderson 1999. However, HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2017 resurrected A. cruralis based on morphology.

Distribution: HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI et al. 2018 have a map with both persica and cruralis with the latter being restricted to eastern Iran and W Pakistan. 
  • Alcock, A. W. & FINN,F. 1897. An account of the Reptilia collected by Dr. F.P. Maynard, Captain A.H. McMahon, C.I.E., and the members of the Afghan-Baluch Boundary Comission of 1896. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 65: 550-566 [1896] - get paper here
  • Blanford, W.T. 1876. Eastern Persia, an account of the journeys of the Persian Boundary Comission, 1870-71-72. Vol. II. The zoology and geology. London, 516 pp.
  • Blanford,W.T. 1874. Descriptions of new lizards from Persia and Baluchistàn. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 13: 453-455 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Ebrahimipour, Farnaz; Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Batoul Ghorbani 2016. A Preliminary Study of the Reptile’s Fauna in Northwestern Yazd Province, Iran. Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (4): 243-248 - get paper here
  • Forcart, Lothar 1950. Amphibien und Reptilien von Iran. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 61: 141-156
  • Hosseinian Yousefkhani, Seyyed Saeed; Mansour Aliabadian; Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani and Jamshid Darvish 2017. Geographic variation in morphology of the genus Agamura Blanford, 1874 in Iran. Amphibia-Reptilia 38: 449-459 - get paper here
  • Hosseinian-Yousefkhani, Seyyed Saeed; Mansour Aliabadian, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani & Jamshid Darvish 2019. Taxonomic revision of the spider geckos of the genus Agamura senso lato Blanford, 1874 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in the Iranian Plateau. The Herpetological Journal 29: 1-12 - get paper here
  • HOSSEINIAN-YOUSEFKHANI, SEYYED SAEED; MANSOUR ALIABADIAN, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI, JAMSHID DARVISH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI, MOHAMMAD EBRAHIM SEHHATISABET 2018. Description of a new species of the genus Agamura Blanford, 1874 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from southern Iran. Zootaxa 4457 (2): 325–331 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H. H. 1977. Distributional maps of reptiles of Iran. Herpetological Review 8: 126-129. - get paper here
  • Shcherbak, N. N. [= Szczerbak], and M. L. Golubev 1996. Gecko fauna of the USSR and contiguous regions. SSAR [Russian original published in 1986]. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 138]
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1938. Reptilien aus Iran und Belutschistan. Zool. Anz. 121: 265—271
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