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Alopoglossus angulatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Alopoglossus angulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAlopoglossidae, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Northern Teiid 
SynonymLacerta angulata LINNAEUS 1758: 204
Alopoglossus copii surinamensis BRONGERSMA 1946: 231
Alopoglossus angulatus — HOOGMOED 1973: 216
Alopoglossus angulatus — LEHR 2002: 74
Alopoglossus angulatus — KÖHLER et al. 2012
Alopoglossus angulatus — RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018 
DistributionColombia (Amazonas), Brazil (Amapa, Para, Amazonas, Rondonia, Acre), French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru (Huánuco, Loreto, Madre de Díos,Ucuyali), N Bolivia (?), elevation 100-760 m.

Type locality: “America”, restricted to Brown’s Mountain [Brownsberg], Suriname (4°56′N, 55°10′W) by neotype designation.

andeanus: Peru (Puno); Type locality: La Pampa, Dpto. Puno, Peru, 760 m elevation  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesNeotype RMNH 15200, female (Hoogmoed, 1973)
Holotype: RMNH 4858 [surinamensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Scales on sides of neck keeled, at least posterior ones leaf-like; gulars in oblique irregular rows (Fig. 3); scales on dorsum and flanks rhomboidal, strongly keeled and mucronate; ventrals usually smooth (rarely broadly keeled), posterior margin blunt or pointed [KÖHLER et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (without Ptychoglossus included in Alopoglossus): Alopoglossus angulatus is distinguished from all other species of Alopoglossus by the combination of the following characters: (1) scales on sides of neck non-granular, keeled, imbricate (at least medial and posterior ones phylloid), in six to nine transverse rows; (2) three pairs of chin shields; (3) third pair of chin shields with rounded posterior margins, in direct contact with gulars or separated from them by a row of small scales; (4) absence of a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales; (5) scales on gular region subequal in size, but varying in shape: lateral ones strongly keeled, pointed, phylloid; anterior, medial and posterior ones varying from smooth to feebly keeled, phylloid; anteriormost transverse row with scales varying from smooth to feebly keeled, almost rounded posteriorly and varying from similar in size to slightly smaller than those in the proceeding rows; (6) ventral scales feebly keeled, mucronate, imbricate, with bluntly pointed posterior margins; (7) total number of femoral pores in males 20–29 (Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2020: 10).

Comparisons with other species: Alopoglossus angulatus differs from A. atriventris, A. buckleyi, A. copii, A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps (in parentheses) in having scales on sides of neck similar in shape to dorsals, non-granular, keeled, imbricate (granular in A. atriventris and A. buckleyi; mostly granular in A. embera, A. festae, A. lehmanni and A. viridiceps; conical with apparent bare skin between conical scales in A. copii); it also differs from A. embera, A. festae and A. viridiceps in not having gulars arranged in two longitudinal rows (vs. a double longitudinal row of widened gular scales); from A. lehmanni in having dorsal scales rhomboidal, in oblique rows (vs. dorsal scales hexagonal with parallel lateral edges, in transverse rows). Alopoglossus angulatus differs from A. amazonius and A. meloi in having three pairs of chin shields (vs. four pairs) and the third pair of chin shields with rounded posterior margins, in direct contact with gulars or separated from them by a row of small scales (vs. third pair of chin shields irregularly trapezoidal, separated from gulars by large scales). It differs from A. andeanus in having scales on the sides of the neck in six to nine transverse rows (vs. 11 or 12) and in lacking a pair of medial enlarged pregular scales. Alopoglossus angulatus differs from Alopoglossus avilapiresae and A. carinicaudatus in having scales on the sides of the neck in six to nine transverse rows (vs. 10–13 in A. avilapiresae; 11 or 12 in A. carinicaudatus), scales on the medial gular region smooth to feebly keeled (vs. scales on medial gular region strongly keeled, in A. carinicaudatus), and the third pair of chin shields with rounded posterior margins [vs. third pair of chin shields irregularly quadrangular (anterior and posterior margins almost parallel) with straight posterior margins, in A. carinicaudatus]. Alopoglossus angulatus differs from Alopoglossus collii in having scales on the gular region subequal in size, with anterior, medial and posterior ones varying from smooth to feebly keeled, phylloid, and anteriormost transverse row with scales varying from similar in size to slightly smaller than those in the proceeding rows (vs. scales on gular region varying in size, with medial and posterior ones smooth, almost rounded, bluntly pointed, larger than lateral ones, and the first three anterior transverse rows with scales smooth, almost rounded, larger than those in the proceeding row, and anteriormost row with the largest scales), lower number of ventral scales (14–18 vs. 18 or 19), and higher total number of femoral pores in males (20–29 vs. 19–22) (Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2020: 10). 
CommentSynonymy: Alopoglossus andeanus RUIBAL 1952, A. carinicaudatus, and A. amazonius have all been synonymized with A. angulatus but revalidated by RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 39.

The original diagnosis of A. angulatus, strictly combining scales of body strongly keeled and mucronate (except the ventrals and head scales), two large rounded scales under the throat, tail 1.5 times as long as the body and hexagonal in cross section, and colour brown, is evidently ambiguous (see Hoogmoed 1973: 223) and would include A. meloi and possibly other species (RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018).

Distribution: see maps in KÖHLER et al. 2012, RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR 2018: 33 (Fig. 5), RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR et al. 2020: 39 (Fig. 20).

Habitat: leaf litter of lowland tropical forest, often near water. 
References
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