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Ameiva bifrontata COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAmeiva bifrontata bifrontata COPE 1862
Ameiva bifrontata divisa (FISCHER 1879)
Ameiva bifrontata insulana RUTHVEN 1924 
Common NamesE: Khaki Ameiva, Cope's Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva bifrontata COPE 1862: 67
Ameiva bifrontata — BOULENGER 1885: 351
Amiva [sic] bifrontata — COPE 1885: 181
Ameiva bifrontata — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 20
Ameiva bifrontata — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Ameiva bifrontata bifrontata — HARVEY et al. 2012

Ameiva bifrontata divisa (FISCHER 1879)
Cnemidophorus divisus FISCHER 1879: 99
Ameiva divisus — RUTHVEN 1913
Ameiva bifrontata divisa — BURT 1942: 263
Ameiva bifrontata divisa — HARVEY et al. 2012

Ameiva bifrontata insulana RUTHVEN 1924
Ameiva bifrontata insulana — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionN Peru, Colombia (incl. Valle del Cauca), Venezuela, Testigo I, Dutch Leeward I, Margarita I, Aruba I, La Tortuga Island

Type locality: in error (see comment); New Grenada (= Colombia)

divisus: Colombia; Type locality: Baranquilla, Colombia

insulana: restricted to Los Testigos islands.  
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3657, 9082-83, 9140
Syntypes: ZMH 09545–9 [divisa]
Holotype: MCZ 14025 [insulana] 
CommentSynonymous to Ameiva ameiva (fide BAUER 1995)?

Subspecies after PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970. Ameiva bifrontata concolor RUTHVEN 1924 is now considered as a valid species by most recent authors.

Distribution: the original type locality (St. Thomas, West Indies) is probably in error. Ruthven (1913) and Barbour & Noble (1915: 471) doubt that this species ever occurred on St. Thomas and assume that the type specimens probably came from Venezuela that is represented in Colombia by A. divisus.

Photo: the first photo by Jan Prerost may be in fact A. ameiva (fide G. Ugueto, pers. comm. 10 Feb 2012). 
  • Acuña-Vargas, J. C. 2016. Anfibios y Reptiles asociados a cinco coberturas de la tierra, municipio de Dibulla, La Guajira, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.), 32(2): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and G. K. Noble. 1915. A revision of the lizards of the genus Ameiva. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 59: 417-479. - get paper here
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia. Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1942. Lizards from the Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. Copeia 1942 (4): 263 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1879. Neue oder wenig bekannte Reptilien. Verh. naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg N.F. III: 78-103 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S. R. & Bursey, C. R. 2012. Ameiva bifrontata (Cope's ameiva) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 43: 477 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • KOCH, CLAUDIA; PABLO J. VENEGAS, DENNIS RÖDDER, MORRIS FLECKS & WOLFGANG BÖHME 2013. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924. Zootaxa 3745 (2): 263–295 - get paper here
  • Manzanilla, Jesus;Cornieles, Ricardo;Fernandez-Badillo, Alberto 1998. Geographic Distribution. Ameiva bifrontata. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 109-110 - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, A. G. 1924. Description of an Ameiva from Testigos Island, Venezuela. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (149): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G. 1913. On Ameiva bifrontata Cope and Ameiva divisus (Fischer). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (2): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G. 1924. The subspecies of Ameiva bifrontata. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (155): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J. 1973. Relations among three macroteiid lizards on Aruba Island. Journal of Herpetology 7 (3): 289-95 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2006. Die Ernährung von Ameiven und Warantejus in der Natur und bei Terrarienhaltung. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (62): 56-62 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, G.N. & Rivas, G.A. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Margarita, Coche and Cubagua. Frankfurt Contributions to Natural History, Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 350 pp
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
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