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Ameiva reticulata LANDAURO, GARCÍA-BRAVO & VENEGAS, 2015

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAmeiva reticulata LANDAURO, GARCÍA-BRAVO & VENEGAS 2015 
DistributionPeru (Tayacaja)

Type locality: Valle Seco del Mantaro (12°5'26.916''S, 74°41'55.968''W, WGS 84) at 1411 m. elevation, District of Surcubamba, Province of Tayacaja, Region of Huancavelica, Peru  
TypesHolotype: CORBIDI 08816 (Figs. 1–2), an adult male collected on 31 July 2010 by A. García. Paratypes. A total of 35 specimens, all from the Province of Tayacaja, Region of Huancavelica, Peru: one adult male (CORBIDI 1095) from Barropata (12°17'34.812''S, 74°40'58.826''W, WGS 84), at 1528 m.a.s.l., District of Surcubamba, collected on 28 April 2008 by C.Z. Landauro; one adult male (CORBIDI 9919) from Intivilca (12°19' 51.4''S, 74° 37'53.1''W, WGS 84) at 2238 m.a.s.l., District of Colcabamba, collected on 04 April 2011 by D. Amaya; one adult male (CORBIDI 9917) and three adult females (CORBIDI 9918, 9920, 9921) from Jatuspata (12°15'1.2''S, 74°41'33.6''W, WGS 84) at 2609 m.a.s.l., District of Surcubamba, collected on 07 April 2011 by D. Amaya; four adult males (CORBIDI 10084, 10086, 10090, 10092), four juvenile males (CORBIDI 10081, 10082, 10087, 10094), seven adult females (CORBIDI 10075, 10076, 10078, 10085, 10088, 10089, 10093) and five juvenile females (CORBIDI 10077, 10079, 10080, 10083, 10091), all from Valle Seco del Mantaro (12°5'43.073''S, 74°42'45.002'' W, WGS 84) at 1180 m.a.s.l., District of Surcubamba, collected on 01 and 02 November 2011 by A. Urbay and C.Z. Landauro; one adult female (CORBIDI 13623) from Campamento Limonal (12°14'5.184'' S, 74°41'52.100'' W, WGS 84) at 1438 m.a.s.l., District of Surcubamba, collected on 31 August 2013 by A. Escóbar; eight specimens from Pichiu District of Colcabamba: one juvenile (CORBIDI 13622) at 1974 m.a.s.l. (12°20'9.890'' S, 74°39'26.755'' W, WGS 84), collected on 10 September 2013 by C.Z. Landauro; two juveniles (CORBIDI 13620, 13621) at 2003 m.a.s.l. (12°19'53.815'' S, 74°39'6.943'' W, WGS 84), collected on 11 September 2013 by C.Z. Landauro; one adult male (CORBIDI 13625) and one adult female (CORBIDI 13628) at 2169 m.a.s.l. (12°19'15.902'' S, 74°38'51.498'' W, WGS 84), collected on 14 September 2013 by A. Escóbar; one adult female (CORBIDI 13629) at 2169 m.a.s.l. (12°19'32.913'' S, 74°39'5.017'' W, WGS 84), collected on 15 September 2013 by A. Escóbar; one adult male (CORBIDI 13626) and one adult female (CORBIDI 13624) at 1868 m.a.s.l (12°21'48.634'' S, 74°37'27.249'' W, WGS 84), collected on 18 September 2013 by A. Escóbar. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized Ameiva distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) maximum SVL in males 149 mm; (2) dorsal head scales smooth; (3) frontal single; (4) frontoparietal and parietal plates in contact with interparietals; (5) 17–24 (both sides) scales, usually in single row between supraoculars and supraciliaries; (6) 8–17 occipitals, usually subequal to first dorsal row; (7) 19–25 anterior gulars; (8) middle anterior gulars polygonal and usually distinctly enlarged; (9) patch of distinctly enlarged posterior gulars usually present; (10) 8–14 posterior gulars between antegular and gular folds; (11) enlarged mesoptychial scales subequal or larger than largest gulars; (12) postbrachials moderately to distinctly enlarged; (13) 181–237 scales between interparietals and base of tail; (14) 102–137 dorsal scales across midbody; (15) ventrals in 28–32 transverse rows, and in eight longitudinal rows; (16) in life, adult individuals with head, arms, dorsum and flanks pale brown or grayish brown, legs and tail bright green or turquoise, flanks with light green or turquoise ocelli; (17) throat in adults white; (18) dorsum finely reticulated without a pale vertebral stripe along dorsum; (19) in life, dorsum and arms of juveniles brown with an olive green tint, legs and tail turquoise, and flanks with pale yellow ocelli; (20) associated with interandean dry forest.

Comparison with other species. Ameiva reticulata shares the characters described by Harvey et al. (2012) for the A. ameiva complex (e.g. A. ameiva, A. atrigularis, A. pantherina, and A. praesignis): frontal entire, its posterior suture usually contacting second supraocular or aligned with suture between second and third supraoculars; frontal ridge absent; interparietal entire; parietal series (including interparietal) composed of five relatively long plates; narial suture passes through nostril; first supralabial usually curved; first subocular usually separated from supralabials by anterior expansion of the second subocular; intertympanic crease present; pectoral sulcus absent; ventral scales in 10–12 longitudinal rows; plate-like antebrachials continuous with or narrowly separated from brachial scales; combined femoral and abdominal pores number 28–45; fifth toe reduced; complete row of scales separate supradigital and subdigital lamellae along postaxial edge of each toe; tip of snout of adult males never reddish; adults without dorsolateral and vertebral stripes, or vertebral stripe only apparent on posterior dorsum; flanks with pale ocelli.
Within the Ameiva ameiva complex, A. reticulata most resembles A. ameiva, a species widely distributed throughout Amazonia (Ugueto & Harvey 2011), and differs from it as follows (characteristics of A. ameiva in parentheses): maximum SVL in males 149 mm (163 mm) and in females 129 mm (146 mm); frontal usually pentagonal (hexagonal or roughly pentagonal in some specimens); fourth supraocular separated from parietals by one or two rows of circumorbital scales (up to four rows of circumorbital scales); 17–24 scales laterally between supraoculars and supraciliaries laterally (19–31scales); ventrals in eight longitudinal rows (ten longitudinal rows); 181–237, mean= 199.9 ± 36.52, dorsal scales along the middorsal line (209–287, mean = 252.6 ± 16.65); 102–137, mean = 123.4 ± 8.24 dorsal scales at midbody in a transverse row (135–175, mean = 154.3 ± 8.8); 19–25, mean = 22.27 ± 1.56 anterior gulars (18–32, mean = 25.6 ± 2.64); preanal shield with four rows of enlarged scales (5–7); in juveniles, dorsal surface brown or olive green with black reticulation and white pale ocelli on flanks (first third or half of dorsum green and rest brown, flanks dark brown without ocelli; Fig. 5E); in adults, dorsal surface of body brown or greenish-brown with a soft black reticulation, flanks completely brown or brown fading into greenish or turquoise towards hind limbs and with ill-defined light ocelli, tail turquoise (first third or half of dorsum brown with dark brown flecks, dots or blotches and remaining part of dorsum and tail green; Fig. 5F).
From the other species of the Ameiva ameiva complex such as A. atrigularis, A. pantherina (both from Venezuela) and A. praesignis (from Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia) (Ugueto & Harvey 2011), A. reticulata can be separated by having: a lower scale count with 181–237, mean = 252.6 dorsals along the middorsal line and 102– 137, mean = 123.4 dorsals across the midbody in a transverse row (263–361, mean = 309 and 134–179, mean = 151.3 in A. atrigularis; 291–343, mean = 311.3 and 137–163, mean = 147.4 in A. pantherina; and 237–348, mean = 289.3 and 111–157, mean = 133 in A. praesignis). Ameiva atrigularis and A. praesignis are longer than A. reticulata, with a maximum SVL in males of 186 mm and 243 mm, respectively (149 mm in A. reticulata). Further, throat coloration in adults is dark gray or black in A. atrigularis, dark gray in A. pantherina, cream or blue in A. praesignis (white in A. reticulata).
Other species of the genus Ameiva that occur in Peru such as A. aggerescusans, A. concolor and A. nodam, are all restricted to the upper Marañón basin in northern Peru (Koch et al. 2013), and share a transversely divided frontal plate, while it is entire in A. reticulata. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is an adjective derived from the latin word “reticulatus” meaning “net-like” and refers to the soft net-like dorsal pattern of this species. 
  • LANDAURO, CAROLL Z.; ANTONIO GARCÍA-BRAVO & PABLO J. VENEGAS 2015. An endemic new species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from an isolated dry forest in southern Peru. Zootaxa 3946 (3): 387–400 - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
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