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Ameivula nigrigula (ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER, 2011)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymCnemidophorus nigrigula ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER 2011
Ameivula nigrigula — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: Santo Inácio (10°39’S, 42°37’W), state of Bahia, Brazil, elevation 520 m  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 93721 (field number MRT 3313), adult male, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues et al., on 5 May 2000. Paratypes. MZUSP 93735 to 93750 (field number, respectively MRT 3378 to 3393), collected by Miguel Tre- faut Rodrigues from 4–7 May 2000, and MZUSP 93807, 93819 (field number, respectively MRT 3105, 3274), col- lected by Miguel T. Rodrigues, on 5 May 2000; same locality data as for the holotype. Male adults: MZUSP 93737, 93740, 93741, 93742, 93743, 93744, 93748, 93749, 93807 and 93819. Female adults: MZUSP 93735, 93736, 93738, 93739, 93745, 93746, 93747 and 93750. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemidophorus nigrigula is a member of the C. ocellifer group with which it shares the presence of granules in the supraorbital semicircles and the absence of anal spurs in males. The species differs from all other members of the group by having a gular and occasionally the sublabial region dark black, ontogenetic changes in male color pattern, sexual dimorphism in size, and a pronounced sexual dichromatism. Furthermore, Cnemidopho- rus nigrigula differs from C. jalapensis by having 15–20 (x= 17) femoral pores (11– 16, x= 13.3 in C. jalapensis), 27–32 (x= 30) scales around tail (19–26, x= 22.7), 190–220 (x= 208.6) dorsal scales (200–250, x= 225.9), lateral spots present (lateral spots absent), and a larger body size (smaller, SVL= 53.45 mm). Cnemidophorus nigrigula differs from C. mumbuca by having 27–32 (x= 30) scales around tail (19–27, x= 22.6 in C. mumbuca), dorsal stripes absent in adult males (present), row of bright turquoise ocelli on lower lateral fields (bluish white ocelli, only males). Cnemidophorus nigrigula differs from C. ocellifer by having 15–20 (x= 17) femoral pores (14–17, x= 16 in C. ocellifer), 190–220 (x= 208.6) dorsal scales (172–188, x= 181), and dorsal stripes absent in adult males (present). Cnemidophorus nigrigula differs from C. confusionibus by having 27–32 (x= 30) scales around tail (22– 28, x= 24.9 in C. confusionibus), 190–220 (x= 208.6) dorsal scales (188–211, x= 201.6), and lateral spots turquoise (yellow). Cnemidophorus nigrigula differs from all members of the littoralis subgroup (C. littoralis, C. abaetensis and C. venetacaudus) by having enlarged scales in temporal region, posterior to third subocular (absent), 2–3 rows of enlarged scales in dorsal part of arm (one row), 5 supraciliaries (6–7), 8 longitudinal rows of ventral scales (8– 10), 26–29 (x= 27) transverse ventral scale rows (29–38), 15–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (21–45), and a brown tail (bluish green). Furthermore, it differs from C. littoralis and C. abaetensis by the absence of a mid-dorsal stripe (present in both species), and absence of a stripe on the tail (present in both species). Cnemidophorus nigrigula dif- fers from C. venetacaudus by having lateral ocelli on flanks (absent), and from C. cyanurus sp. nov. (see below) by having 15–20 (x= 17.5) femoral pores (31–38, x= 34.5 in C. cyanurus), 8 longitudinal rows of ventrals (8–10), 87– 105 (x= 95) scales around midbody (110–126, x= 118.2), 5 superciliaries (6–7), mid-dorsal stripe absent (present), lateral spots on flanks (absent), and a brown tail (bright blue-green). 
CommentCnemidophorus nigrigula, shares with the C. ocellifer sub- group (composed of C. ocellifer, C. mumbuca, C. jalapensis and C. confusionibus) a low number of femoral pores (14– 21), enlarged scales in the temporal region posterior to the third subocular, 5 supraciliaries, 6 to 8 rows of ventral scales, and a brown tail color. It is also characterized by males being conspicuously larger than females and by females retaining the juvenile color pattern, which is lost in adult males. 
EtymologyNamed after nigri, a Latin adjective meaning ‘‘black,’’ and gula, a Latin noun in apposition, meaning throat, in allusion to the characteristic black coloration of the throat in this species. 
  • Arias FJ, Recoder R, Álvarez BB, Eduardo Ethcepare, Matias Quipildor, Fernando Lobo and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2018. Diversity of teiid lizards from Gran Chaco and Western Cerrado (Squamata: Teiidae). Zoologica Scripta 47: 144–158 - get paper here
  • Arias, Federico Jose, Mauro Teixeira Junior, Renato Sousa Recoder, Celso Morato de Carvalho, Hussam Zaher and Miguel Trefault Rodrigues. 2014. Whiptail lizards in South America: A new Ameivula (Aquamata, Teiidae) from Planalto dos Gerais, Eastern Brazilian Cerrado. Amphibia-Reptilia 35 (2): 227-242 - get paper here
  • Arias, Federico; Celso Morato de Carvalho, Hussam Zaher, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2014. A New Species of Ameivula (Squamata, Teiidae) from Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil. Copeia 2014 (1): 95–105 - get paper here
  • ARIAS, FEDERICO; CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES & HUSSAM ZAHER 2011. Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) of the C. ocellifer group, from Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3022: 1–21
  • De Oliveira, M.L.T., Leite, A.K. & Tinöco, M.S. 2017. Ameivula nigrigula Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 631. - get paper here
  • Garda, A.A.; T.B. Costa; C.R. Santos-Silva; D.O. Mesquita; R.G. Faria; B.M. Conceição; I.R.S. Silva; A.S. Ferreira; S.M. Rocha; C.N.S. Palmeira; R. Rodrigues; S.F. Ferrari; S. Torquato. 2013. Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga I: Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (Bahia, Brazil). Check List 9 (2):405-414 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Leite, A K; Dias, M A & Tinôco, M S; 2019. Ameivula nigrigula Prey. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 133-134 - get paper here
  • MARIA A. XAVIER; TAINARA LIMA-SILVA, GABRIEL D. SANTOS-CARVALHO, & EDUARDO J.R. DIAS. 2022. Reproductive biology of Ameivula nigrigula (Squamata: teiidae) in Caatinga domain, northeastern Brazil. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 17(1): 95–102. - get paper here
  • Silva, Karen Pinto da; Thiago Silva Soares 2018. New records of Glaucomastix cyanura and Ameivula nigrigula (Arias, De Carvalho, Rodrigues & Zaher, 2011) (Squamata: Teiidae) in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 405-408 - get paper here
  • Sousa, J G G; Cavalcante, L A & Ferreira-Silva, C; 2019. Geographic Distribution: Ameivula nigrigula. BRAZIL: Bahia: Palmas de Monte Alto. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 101 - get paper here
  • Uchôa LR, Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Colli GR, Garda AA, Guedes TB 2022. Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Detailed and updated overview. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 599-659 - get paper here
  • Xavier, Maria A.; Luciano A. Anjos, Gilberto S. Gazêta, Ingrid B. Machado, Luciane M. Storti-Melo & Eduardo J. R. Dias 2019. Influence of Geographic Distribution on Parasite Loads in Teiid Lizards (Squamata: Ameivula) from Northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 75 (4): 315-322 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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