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Ameivula ocellifera (SPIX, 1825)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Spix's Whiptail
Portuguese: Calango, Calango-da-Praia, Calango-Ligeiro, Calango-Listrado, Calango-Pequeno, Calango-Tijubina, Calanguinho, Calanguinho-Pintado, Calanguinho-Sardão-Pequeno, Calanguinho-Verde, Tijubina 
SynonymTeius ocellifer SPIX 1825: 23
Cnemidophorus Hygomi REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 231
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — PETERS 1877
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — PETERS et al. 1970: 95
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — CEI 1993
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Ameivula ocellifera — HARVEY et al. 2012
Cnemidophorus cf. ocellifer — BASTO DA SILVA & ÁVILA-PIRES 2013
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — SANTOS-CALDAS et al. 2016
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — ALBUQUERQUE et al. 2018 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Piauí, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba), Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Tarija), N Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco, Formosa, Córdoba, La Rioja)

Type locality: “Bahia”, Brasil. Vanzolini (1981) concluded
that Salvador, the capital of Bahia state, is the likely type locality of A. ocellifera because “Bahia” was frequently used as a synonym for Salvador. Neotype locality: Parque das Dunas, 12°55’3”S, 38°19’12”W, 20 m a.s.l., municipality of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil.

hygomi: Type locality: “Maruim”, state of Sergipe, Brazil.  
ReproductionBisexual. See C. littoralis. 
TypesNeotype: ZUFMS-REP 04144, designated by Oliveira et al. 2022; collected by R. Marques, M. L. T. Oliveira, N. J. L. Santos, and M. S. Bonfim, 15. VII. 2018.
Syntype: lost, was ZSM 111/0 (fide Franzen & Glaw 2007)
Syntype: ZMB 4335 [Cnemidophorus Hygomi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Although the hemipenis of Ameivula ocellifera has at least one unique character (the papillate catchment folds and awns), hemipenes of other species in this genus have never been described and were unavailable for study. Ameivula differs from Ameiva (characters in parentheses) in having a long first supraciliary (shorter than second; but see remarks regarding species allied to A. litoralis where the first supraciliary is divided), the prefrontal usually contacting the nasal (separated from nasal), and the prefrontal separated from the first supraciliary (in contact, except in the A. lineolata series).

Diagnosis: see BASTO DA SILVA & ÁVILA-PIRES 2013: 466

Description of the neotype: Adult male in good condition; no evident scar or damage (Figs 4; 5). Tail whole; small longitudinal incision on left thigh due to muscle sample collection. Snout-vent length, 61.08 mm; trunk length, 30.36 mm; tail length, 133.59 mm; head length, 18.53 mm; head width, 10.25 mm; head height, 8.41 mm; humeral length, 6.48 mm; forelimb length, 19.4 mm; femur length, 13.03 mm; tibia length, 12.68 mm; foot length, 22.10 mm; hindlimb length, 47.81 mm (Fig. 4). Head distinct from neck (Fig. 5), longer than wide (head length/head width, 1.80); head length/snout-vent length, 0.30. Trunk elongate (trunk length/ snout-vent length, 0.49); tail long, about 2.2 × snout-vent length. Snout moderately pointed. Rostral and frontonasal separated by pair of anterior nasals (Figs 4; 5, see details in Appendices 1; 2). Nostril anterior to and in contact with nasal suture. Posterior nasals contact pair of prefrontals. Prefrontal on each side separated from first supraciliary by loreal and first supraocular. Loreal, single, large, almost high as long, in contact with posterior nasal, prefrontal, first supraocular, first supraciliary, first and second suboculars, and third and fourth supralabials. Frontal entire, lacking ridges; posterior suture of frontal aligns with first half of third supraocular. Frontoparietals, two. Parietals, four (a pair on each side). Interparietal subequal in size to each flanking pair of parietals. Occipitals (c. 45) irregular, variable in size, larger than dorsals on first row, immediately posterior to them. Temporals irregular in size. Four enlarged supratemporals in longitudinal row behind supraciliaries. Supratemporals separated from parietals by occipitals. Circumorbitals reaching posterior border of first supraocular. Supraoculars, four on each side, 3rd > 2nd > 1st > 4th; first supraocular entire, contacting second supraocular, loreal, prefrontal, frontal, and first supraciliary; second to fourth supraoculars separated from supraciliaries by one row of lateral supraocular granules. Supraciliaries, five on each side; first supraciliary in contact with first subocular. Supralabials, six on each side, third largest. Infralabials, five on each side; third to sixth separated from chinshields by row of granules. Chinshields, four on each side; first pair with suture through almost their length. Gular region divided in two: anterior gular region with rounded and larger scales, in 20 irregular transverse rows; posterior gular region covered by smaller scales in 15 transverse rows. Interangular and intertympanic sulci absent; interauricular crease present. Dorsal and lateral head scales juxtaposed and smooth. Dorsals round, smooth, and sub-imbricate; 176 dorsals along mid-dorsum, from nape to base of tail; 88 around midbody. Ventrals smooth, wider than long, imbricated, in eight longitudinal rows and 26 transverse rows. Preanal plate with three enlarged scales (a central and two posterior scales), surrounded by seven smaller scales. Scales on base of tail rectangular, smaller than ventrals, in transverse rows; scales around tail, 28, longer and narrower posteriorly; tail scales keeled dorsally, smooth ventrally. Scales on flanks granular, round, smooth, sub-imbricate. Forelimbs with large, smooth, imbricate scales on dorsal surface of upper arms and anterodorsal forearms; elsewhere scales small and granular. Scales in the dorsal region of the forearm enlarged, in two longitudinal rows. Hindlimbs with large, smooth, imbricate scales on anteroventral surface of thighs and ventral surface of lower legs; elsewhere, scales small and granular; enlarged prefemoral scales, 10. Femoral pores in continuous row along each thigh; seven pores on right side and eight pores on left side. Abdominal pores, one on each side. Lamellae under fourth finger, 16 on each side; under fourth toe, 27 on each side. Fifth toe shortened. Tibiotarsal spurs absent. (Oliveira et al. 2022).

Coloration in life: Oliveira et al. 2022.

Comparisons: Oliveira et al. 2022: text and Tables 2 + 3 (comparison with A. abalosi A. apipensis A. cipoensis A. confusioniba A. jalapensis A. mumbuca A. nativo A. nigrigula A. pyrrhogularis A. xacriaba). 
CommentSynonymy that of CEI 1993.

Distribution: presence in Paraguay unclear. Reports from Paraguay may actually refer to A. abalosi or a yet undescribed species (Cacciali et al. 2016).

Maybe a species complex (ROCHA et al. 1997, 2000). Southern populations of this species have been redescribed as C. abalosi CABRERA 2012.

Type species: Teius ocellifer SPIX 1825 is the type species of the genus Ameivula HARVEY et al. 2012.

Group: this species is the founding member of the ocellifer group, distinguished by the presence of granules in the supraorbital semicircles, a lower number of femoral pores (less than 40), and the absence of preanal spurs (Rocha et al., 2000, Colli et al., 2003).

Behavior: epigeal diurnal 
EtymologyNamed after Latin ocellus, diminituve of oculus = eye, referring to the spots on the side of the species, and the Latin adjective fero, ferre = to carry.

The new name Ameivula is a feminine noun in the nominative singular and a diminutive form of Ameiva. Arias et al. (2011a,b) did not state whether their new specific epithets (confusionibus, cyanurus, and venetacaudus) are adjectives or nouns in apposition. HARVEY et al. 2012 consider these names to be adjectives and accordingly emend them to agree in gender with the feminine genus Ameivula. 
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