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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Typhlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, on BR 144 Road, municipality Lençóis (12° 32′ 44.682′′ S, 41° 21′ 50.364′′ W; c. 493 m a.s.l.), state of Bahia, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: An adult female, MZUSP S-023380, (field number MTR 19921), collected by Ana C. Q. Carnaval, José C. Silva, Marco A. Sena, Mauro Teixeira Jr., Miguel T. Rodrigues, Renata C. Amaro and Renato Recoder on 15 December 2010 (Fig. 4; Supporting Information, Fig. S3). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “This species is distinguished from all other congeneric species by the unique combination of the following of characters: (1) nasal suture incomplete; (2) rostral scale oval; (3) supralabial scales four; (4) infralabial scales three; (5) rows scales around the body 18/18/18; (6) mid-dorsal scales 212; (7) ventral
scales 202; (8) rows of dorsal scales dark brown 13; (9) rows of ventral scales yellowish cream and immaculate 5; (10) caudal spine dark brown; (11) subcaudal scales 9; (12) TTL 176 mm; (13) TL 4.33 mm; (14) broad contact between the lamina of the premaxilla and the vertical laminae of the nasals, forming a continuous bony septum separating the olfactory chambers; (15) large palatine fossa on the lateral side of the maxilla; (16) maxilla with a straight medial border; (17) ventral pterygoid process of palatine straight; (18) ratio between length of ventral pterygoid process of palatine and skull length 0.25; (19) angle between mandibular condyle articulation and the retroarticular process of the compound bone close to 90°; and (20) dorsal surface of dentary bone with two evident foramina.
The new species differs from Amerotyphlops costaricensis, A. lehneri, A. microstomus, A. stadelmani, A. tasymicris, A. tenuis, A. trinitatus and A. tycherus, by having an incomplete nasal suture (vs. complete nasal suture); from A. brongersmianus, A. reticulatus and A. minuisquamus by having 18/18/18 rows scales around the body (vs. 18/16/14, 18/18/14, 20/18/14 or 20/18/15 in A. minuisquamus; 20/20/18 or 20/20/20 in A. brongersmianus and A. reticulatus); from A. brongersmianus by having an angle close to 90° between mandibular condyle articulation and the retroarticular process of the compound bone (vs. an angle of 135°); from A. yonenagae by having less than 250 mid-dorsal scales (vs. more than 250 mid-dorsal); from A. amoipira by having highly pigmented cephalic scales with a dark brown dorsum (vs. few pigmented cephalic scales, creamy brown dorsum with a fine darker brown paravertebral line concentrated in the anterior part of the body); from A. paucisquamus by having a largest number of mid-dorsal, 212 (vs. fewer number of mid-dorsal, between 162 and 209); and from A. arenensis by having a smaller rostral width (RW1) at dorsal portion, 1.29 mm (vs. larger rostral width at dorsal portion (RW1), between 1.44 and 2.13 mm). Table 1 shows additional morphometric characters and scale patterns found in A. caetanoi and morphologically similar species distributed in southern and north-eastern Brazil.” (Graboski et al. 2022)

Description of the holotype: “Adult female, TTL 176 mm, TL 4.33 mm, MBD/(SVL-HR) 0.036 mm, and TL/SVL 39.72 mm. Head slightly depressed dorsoventrally, not wider than ‘neck’. Snout round in dorsal and ventral views. Rostral oval, longer than wide, narrow at anteroposterior region and wider at medial region; visible in dorsal view, extending ventrodorsally without reaching the imaginary transverse line between anterior borders of eyes. Rostral contacting nasal (anterior and posterior) dorsolaterally, and first supralabial and anterior nasal scales ventrally. Nasal suture incomplete, only partially dividing the anterior and posterior portions of nasal scale. Suture begins in the upper edge of second supralabial, passes through nostril, but fails to reach rostral. Anterior nasal in contact with first infralabial and upper edge of second infralabial. Posterior nasal longer than wide, contacting upper margin of second supralabial and preocular. Supralabials four, fourth twice longer than third. Infralabials three, third largest. Eye diameter 0.56 mm; eyes not visible in ventral view, located dorsolaterally, close to suture between preocular and ocular scales, completely covered by ocular scale. Ocular scales contacting frontal. Body cylindrical and robust. Midbody diameter 6.21 mm. Dorsal and ventral scales cycloid, wider than long, highly imbricated and arranged in diagonal series; scale rows around the body 18/18/18. Mid-dorsal scales 212. Ventral scales 202. Cloacal plate rounded, bordered anteriorly by four rows of scales and posteriorly by five rows of scales. Subcaudal scales nine, excluding the terminal spine. Terminal spine large, stout base and dark brown.” (Graboski et al. 2022) 
CommentDistribution: for a map see Graboski et al. 2022: 16 (Fig. 10). 
EtymologyThe name is a homage to Brazilian composer, singer and political activist Caetano Emanuel Viana Telles Veloso, better known as Caetano Veloso. Caetano is one of the most famous Brazilians born in the state of Bahia (in 1942), the same state in which the new species occurs. He became known for his participation in the Brazilian musical movement ‘Tropicalismo’ that encompassed theatre, poetry and music in the 1960s, at the beginning of the Brazilian military dictatorship. Veloso is also a well-known conservationist, acting to give voice to the preservation of the Brazilian natural environments and to indigenous resilience. 
  • Graboski, Roberta; Juan C Arredondo, Felipe G Grazziotin, Ricardo Arturo Guerra-Fuentes, Ariane A A Da Silva, Ana L C Prudente, Roberta R Pinto, Miguel T Rodrigues, Sandro L Bonatto, Hussam Zaher 2022. Revealing the cryptic diversity of the widespread and poorly known South American blind snake genus Amerotyphlops (Typhlopidae: Scolecophidia) through integrative taxonomy. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, zlac059 - get paper here
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