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Amphisbaena anaemariae VANZOLINI, 1997

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-de-Duas-Cabeças, Cobra-Cega 
SynonymAmphisbaena anaemariae VANZOLINI 1997
Amphisbaena anaemariae — RIBEIRO, VAZ-SILVA & SANTOS JR 2008
Amphisbaena anaemariae — SOUZA & COSTA 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, Distrito Federal, Tocantins)

Type locality: Brazil: Goias: Serra da Mesa, Ponto 2 (14°02’S, 48°13’W).  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 08596. Paratypes: MZUSP 80224, 80225, 80597–60601 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A small species (maximum total length 193 mm). Two preanal pores; 156-170 body annuli; 18-20 tail annuli; autotomy level between third and fourth or between fourth and fifth caudal annuli; 14-16/14-16 segments to a mid-body annulus. (Vanzolini 1997)

Description: Body moderately stocky. Tail slightly clavate. Lateral sulci little marked. No dorsal or ventral sulci. Sutures on the dorsal aspect of the head in the following order of increasing length: nasal, frontal, pre- frontal. Parietals and occipitals irregular. Nostril near the antero-inferior angle of the nasal. Upper labials four, second and third large, subequal. Behind the eye two successive rows of three scales each, becoming larger from the bottom up. Symphysial small, in some specimens irregular. Post-symphysial narrow, elongate, somewhat irregular. Lower labials four, the first small, the second very large, the third narrow and elongate, its posterior end sometimes pinched off to form a fourth lower labial. Two median genials (sensu Vanzolini, 1991): a variable number of post-genials; all of these very irregular; one large, regular lateral genial on each side. Dorsal segments regular, narrow and elongate. Medio-ventral segments once and a half as wide as long. Preanal pores two, very small. Six preanal scales, the outer ones very small. Postanals forming a raised semicircle. The first median pair of ventral caudals in some specimens much enlarged. Autotomy constriction between the third and fourth or the fourth and fifth tail annuli. Back a lustrous brown with slightly lighter intersegmental sutures, light enough to cause a just noticeable reticulate pattern. On the flanks and belly there are segments with a dark center and light edges, irregularly distributed and varying in density: the general appearance of the belly varies from practically white to a brown checkerboard. The ventral aspect of the tail may also be a checkerboard, or may present longitudinal series of 5-10 light segments, or still be almost white. All this variation in eight specimens. Rostral, nasals, upper labials and chin region smudgy rose-colored. (Vanzolini 1997) 
CommentMorphology: This species is one of ~20 species of Amphisbaena with two precloacal pores (Ribeiro et al. 2019). 
EtymologyNamed in honor of Ana Maria Ramos-Costa, long time friend and coworker of the the author. 
  • Angiolani-Larrea, F., de Fraga, R., Mortati, A., & Ribeiro, S. 2021. Sex-dependent divergence in asymmetrical reproductive tract morphology between two closely-related amphisbaenian species (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 42 (3): 317–330 - get paper here
  • Campos Nogueira, C. de 2001. New records of Squamate Reptiles in Central Brazilian Cerrado II: Brasília Region. Herpetological Review 32 (4): 285-287 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • PINNA, PEDRO H.; ANDRÉ F. MENDONÇA; ADRIANA BOCCHIGLIERI & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2010. A new two-pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus from the endangered Brazilian Cerrado biome (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 2569: 44–54 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO, SÍRIA; JERRIANE O. GOMES, HELDER LÚCIO RODRIGUES DA SILVA, CARLOS EDUARDO D. CINTRA, NELSON JORGE DA SILVA JR. 2016. A new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a key to the two-pored species of Amphisbaena. Zootaxa 4147 (2): 124–142 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO, SÍRIA; VÂNIA SÁ, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR, ROBERTA GRABOSKI, HUSSAM ZAHER, ANDREI G. GUEDES, SHEILA P. ANDRADE, WILIAN VAZ-SILVA 2019. A new species of the Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado with a key for the two-pored species. Zootaxa 4550 (3): 301–320 - get paper here
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • SOUZA, MARCELLA & HENRIQUE COSTA. 2022. New southernmost record and an updated distribution map for the Serra da Mesa Wormlizard, Amphisbaena anaemariae (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Reptiles & Amphibians 29(1): 141–145. - get paper here
  • Strussmann, Christine & Tami Mott 2009. Sympatric amphisbaenids from Manso Dam region, Mato Grosso State, Western Brazil, with the description of a new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 44 (1): 37 – 46 - get paper here
  • Teixeira, Mauro; Francisco Dal Vechio, Antonio Mollo Neto, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2014. A New Two-Pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758, from Western Amazonia, Brazil (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). South American J. Herp. 9 (1): 62-74. - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2002. AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF AMPHISBAENA (SQUAMATA, AMPHISBAENIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(15):351-362 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini,P.E. 1997. The silvestrii species group of Amphisvanzolinibaena, with the description of two new Brasilian species (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 40 (3): 65-85
  • Vrcibradic,D. &Soares,M. 1999. Geographic distribution: Amphisbaena anaemariae. Herpetological Review 30 (4): 233 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, L. B., Gomides, S. C., & Costa, H. C. 2018. A New Species of Amphisbaena from Northeastern Brazil (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Journal of Herpetology 52 (2): 234–241 - get paper here
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