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Amphisbaena darwinii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1839

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Darwin's Ringed Worm Lizard
Portuguese: Cobra-de-Duas-Cabeças-Uruguaia 
SynonymAmphisbaena Darwinii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 490
Amphisbaena heterozonata BURMEISTER 1861
Amphisbaena Mildei PETERS 1879: 779
Amphisbaena trachura COPE 1885: 187
Amphisbaena Mildei — BOULENGER 1886: 428
Amphisbaena Darwinii — BOULENGER 1886: 428
Amphisbaena darwini — GANS 1966
Amphisbaena darwini trachura — GANS 1966
Amphisbaena darwini heterozonata — GANS 1966: 239
Amphisbaena darwini heterozonata — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 31
Amphisbaena darwini trachura — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 31
Amphisbaena darwinii — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 30
Amphisbaena darwini trachura — GOMES & KRAUSE 1982: 75
Amphisbaena darwinii trachura — BAUER et al. 1995: 67
Amphisbaena darwinii — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 2000
Amphisbaena trachura — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena heterozonata — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena heterozonata — BERNILS et al. 2007
Amphisbaena heterozonata — PINNA et al. 2010
Amphisbaena trachura — FALCIONE & HERNANDO 2010
Amphisbaena trachura — PINNA et al. 2010
Amphisbaena darwinii — CACCIALI et al. 2016
Amphisbaena darwinii — MONTERO 2016
Amphisbaena heterozonata — COSTA et al. 2018
Amphisbaena trachura — LANGNER 2019
Amphisbaena darwini — LANGNER 2019 
DistributionS/C Uruguay, Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Paraguay

Type locality: Montevideo, Uruguay

trachura: Brazil (São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul) to N Uruguay and NE Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes); Type locality: Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul: San Joao do Monte Negro, now Montenegro (29°42’S, 51°28’W).

heterozonata: Argentina north of Buenos Aires to S Bolivia; Type locality: Mendoza and Tucumán, Argentina; restricted to Mendoza, Argentina by MÜLLER (1941); corrected to Tucumán by GANS (1966).  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3107 (by monotypy; fide Brygoo 1990); Gans (1966) erroneously designated an invalid lectotype among specimens which were not syntypes: lectotype: MNHN-RA 3112 and paralectotypes: MNHN-RA 3107 and MNHN-RA 3113
Holotype: ZMB 6255 (possibly lost), ANSP 12988 [trachura]
Holotype: lost fide Gans 1966: 239; syntypes originally in the Zoological Institute in Halle (Müller 1940, 1941) [heterozonata] 
CommentSubspecies: Amphisbaena darwini heterozonata BURMEISTER 1861 and Amphisbaena darwini trachura (COPE 1885) have been elevated to full species status.

Synonymy: GANS 1966 proposed suppression of the name Amphisbaena Mildei, which was subsequently rejected in priority but not homonymy according to ICZN Opinion 1131 (Melville 1979) and has been placed in the “Official Index of Rejected and invalid specific names in Zoology” as name number 1051 (after BAUER et al. 1995). Montero 2016 synonymized A. trachura and A. heterozonata with A. darwinii, although more recnet authors considered them as valid.

Distribution: not listed for Argentina fide AVILA et al. 2010, Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina. The type locality of Amphisbaena heterozonata is in SE Amazonas (Brazil), near the border to Pára (Figure 6 in Pinna et al. 2010). Amphisbaena heterozonata has not been found in Paraguay (Cacciali et al. 2016).

Morphology: This species is one of ~20 species of Amphisbaena with two precloacal pores (Ribeiro et al. 2019). 
  • Alcalde, L., Cassano, M.J., Sánchez, R.M. & Belén-Tenorio, A. 2019. Species composition, abundance and diet of a squamate assemblage from the Carnaval stream headwaters (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Urban Ecosyst - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Bérnils, R. S., A. R. Giraudo, S. Carreira & S. Z. Cechin. 2007. Répteis das porções subtropical e temperada da Região Neotropical. Ciência & Ambiente 35: 101-136
  • Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; Verdes, José Manuel 2013. Aggregative behaviour in the fossorial lizard Amphisbaena darwinii (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 27 (1): - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Brygoo, E. R. 1990. Les types d'Amphisbaenidés, Pygopodidés, Xantusiidés (Reptiles, Sauriens) du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle - Catalogue critique. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. 12 (ser. 4) A (3-4), suppl.: 3-18
  • Burmeister,H. 1861. Reise durch die La Plata Staaten mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die physische Beschaffenheit und den Culturzustand der Argentinischen Republik. Ausgeführt in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 und 1860. Halle, H.W. Schmidt, 2: iv + 538 pp.
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira, Santiago and Silvana Baletta. 2006. Amphisbaena darwinii darwinii Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 82-83 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Costa HC, Welton LJ, Hallermann J 2018. An updated diagnosis of the rare Amphisbaena slateri Boulenger, 1907, based on additional specimens (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae). Evolutionary Systematics 2(2): 125-135 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015. Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Falcione, Camila and Alejandra Hernando 2010. A new karyotypic formula for the genus Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Phyllomedusa 9 (1): 75-80 - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 1966. Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 3. The small species from southern South America commonly identified as Amphisbaena darwini. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 134: 185-260. - get paper here
  • Gans, C., G.C. Huang & H.F. Clark 1967. The Diphyletism of the Amphisbaenia (Reptilia): A Re-Evaluation Based upon Chromosome Counts Copeia 1967 (2): 485-487. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1883. On certain reptiles from Brazil and Florida. Sci. Observer, Boston, 4 (5 - 6): 47-48
  • GOMES, N. & KRAUSE, L. 1982. Lista preliminar de répteis da estação ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande do Sul. Rev. Bras. Zool. 1(1):71–77 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • LANGNER, C. 2019. Die geheimnisvollen Doppelschleichen (Amphisbaenia) - ein Leben im Untergrund Elaphe 2019 (6): 14-21
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McCoy, C. J.; Achaval, F. & Vanzolini, P. E. 1974. Comments on the Proposal to Suppress Amphisbaena mildei Paters, 1878 (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 31 (4):203 - get paper here
  • Montero, Ricardo 2016. On the Validity of Several Argentinian Species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Journal of Herpetology 50 (4): 642-653 - get paper here
  • Montero, Ricardo and Jorge Céspedez 2002. New two-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from Argentina. Copeia 2002 (3): 792-797 - get paper here
  • Müller,L. 1941. Über die in der Sammlung des zoologischen Institutes der Universität Halle a. Saale aufbewahrten Amphibien und Reptilientypen. [type catalogue] Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss. 94: 182-205
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • PEREZ, RENATA; SÍRIA RIBEIRO & MÁRCIO BORGES-MARTINS 2012. Reappraisal of the taxonomic status of Amphisbaena prunicolor (Cope 1885) and Amphisbaena albocingulata Boettger 1885 (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 3550: 1–25 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1879. Über vier neue amerikanische Amphisbaena-Arten. Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1878: 778-781 - get paper here
  • PINNA, PEDRO H.; ANDRÉ F. MENDONÇA; ADRIANA BOCCHIGLIERI & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2010. A new two-pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus from the endangered Brazilian Cerrado biome (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 2569: 44–54 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO, SÍRIA; JERRIANE O. GOMES, HELDER LÚCIO RODRIGUES DA SILVA, CARLOS EDUARDO D. CINTRA, NELSON JORGE DA SILVA JR. 2016. A new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a key to the two-pored species of Amphisbaena. Zootaxa 4147 (2): 124–142 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO, SÍRIA; VÂNIA SÁ, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR, ROBERTA GRABOSKI, HUSSAM ZAHER, ANDREI G. GUEDES, SHEILA P. ANDRADE, WILIAN VAZ-SILVA 2019. A new species of the Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado with a key for the two-pored species. Zootaxa 4550 (3): 301–320 - get paper here
  • Rosenberg, Herbert I. 1967. Hemipenial morphology of some Amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). Copeia 1967 (2): 349-361 - get paper here
  • Ruiz-García, José A.; Lucila M. Curi, Matías F. Lamas, Jorge Abel Céspedez 2016. Amphisbaena trachura Cope, 1885 (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae): new record for the northeast of Argentina. Check List 12 (3): - get paper here
  • Scanferla, Carlos A., Ricardo Montero and Federico L. Agnolin 2006. The first fossil record of Amphisbaena heterozonata from the late Pleistocene of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. South American J. Herp. 1 (2): 137-142. - get paper here
  • Semhan, Romina V.; Monique Halloy, and Ricardo Montero 2010. Chemical Prey Discrimination of Termites in Amphisbaena heterozonata (Reptilia: Squamata): A Learned Trait? Journal of Herpetology 44 (3): 489–492 - get paper here
  • Souza Filho, Gilberto Alves de; Fernanda Stender de Oliveira 2015. Squamate reptiles from Mauá Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Check List 11 (6): 1800 - get paper here
  • Teixeira, Mauro; Francisco Dal Vechio, Antonio Mollo Neto, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2014. A New Two-Pored Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758, from Western Amazonia, Brazil (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). South American J. Herp. 9 (1): 62-74. - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2002. AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF AMPHISBAENA (SQUAMATA, AMPHISBAENIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(15):351-362 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, PAULO EMILIO 1950. Contribuiçoes ao conhecimento dos lagartos Brasileiros da familia Amphisbaenidae Gray, 1825. I. Sobre uma nova subspecies insular de Amphisbaena darwinii D. and B., 1839. Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 9: 69-77
  • Werner,F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. ii. Eidechsen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., vol. 27 (1909), suppl. no. 2, 1910, pp. 1-46; reprinted: 1910, Mitteil. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, vol. 27: 205-) - get paper here
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