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Amphisbaena munoai KLAPPENBACH, 1960

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata
Common NamesE: Munoa Worm Lizard 
SynonymAmphisbaena munoai KLAPPENBACH 1960
Amphisbaena munoai— HOOGMOED & AVILA-PIRES 1991
Amphisbaena munoai — GANS 2005: 17
Amphisbaena munoai — PEREZ & BORGES-MARTINS 2019 
DistributionS and E Uruguay, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul)

Type locality: Uruguay: Maldonado: Cerro de Animas (34°42’S, 55°19’W).  
TypesHolotype: MNHNC 587. Paratypes: MNHNC 173A–173D, 181A–181F, 583A–583E, 586, 588–591, 718A, 718B, 862–862C, 863, 865A–865C (Cerro de Animas); MNHNC 178A, 178B, 182 (Cerro San Antonio, Piriapolis, Maldonado); MNHNC 714 (Carpinterma, Rivera); MNHNC 716 (Aguas Blancas, Lavalleja); MNHN 861A, 86lB (Zapican, Lavalleja); MNHNC 864 (Sierras de Acegua, Cerro Largo); ZVC (= DZVU) 37–1 (Cerro de Arequita, Lavalleja); ZVC (= DZVU) 38, 142 (Cerro, Montevideo), MACN, USNM 145301, and others (see Perez & Borges-Martins 2019: 135). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Amphisbaena munoai distinguishes from other species of Amphisbaena by the following combination of characters: (1) rounded head; (2) smooth segments on the tip of the tail; (3) four precloacal pores; (4) 202-218 body annuli; (5) row of postmalar shields present; (6) 18-25 caudal annuli; (7) caudal autotomy visible between 5 and 9 tail annuli; (8) 10-14 segments on the midbody annulus (from Perez & Borges-Martins 2019: 135).

Comparison: Amphisbaena munoai is distinguished from A. albocingulata by presenting the post-malar row (vs. post-malar row absent). Differs from A. hogei by presenting 202-218 body annuli (vs. 177-191 body annuli). It differs from A. heterozonata by presenting 18-23 caudal annuli (vs. 13-17 caudal annuli). It differs from A. nigricauda by presenting a uniform coloration in the tip of the tail (vs. a darker coloration in the tip of the tail). It differs from A. trachura by presenting smooth scales in the tip of the tail (vs. tuberculate scales). It differs from A. darwinii by presenting a slender body and small SVL in adults, 102-151 mm (vs. sturdy body with long SVL in adults, 150-304 mm). Differs from A. prunicolor by presenting a uniform coloration pattern (vs. checkered coloration pattern). Differs from A. tiaraju sp. nov. by presenting a smaller distance between ocular shields, varying between vs. 28.7-37.5, x = 32.7 ± 0,9 of head length (HL) (vs. 35.3-42.7%,x = 39.5 ± 2,3) and 6.4% of 16S rDNA mean genetic distance. It differs from A. arenicola sp nov. by presenting 3/3 supralabial shields (vs. 3/3 or 4/4 supralabial shields) and a larger nasal suture varying between 14.1 and 20.8, x = 17.6 ± 1.5 (vs. 12.5-17.2, x = 14.7 ± 1.5). Differs from A. nana sp. nov. by presenting a large frontal shield, with larger size than parietal shield, varying between 25.9 and 35.8; x = 27.7 ± 1.0 of HL (vs. 18.7-28.7% x = 23.9 ± 2.6; with similar size than parietal shield) (from Perez & Borges-Martins 2019: 135). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bernardo-Silva, Jorge S.; Eduardo M. Von-Mühlen, Marcos Di-Bernardo & Jochen Ketterl 2006. Feeding ecology in the small neotropical amphisbaenid Amphisbaena munoai (Amphisbaenidae) in southern Brazil. Iheringia, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre, 96(4):487-489 - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. A new species of small Amphisbaena (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae) from western Amazonian Brazil. BOLETIM DO MUSEU PARAENSE EMILIO GOELDI SERIE ZOOLOGIA 7 (1): 77-94
  • Klappenbach, MIGUEL A. 1960. Notas herpetologicas, I. Amphisbaena munoai n. sp. (Amphisbaenidae). Comun. zool. Mus. Montevideo 4 (84): 3
  • Perez, R. & Borges-Martins, M. 2019. Integrative taxonomy of small worm lizards from Southern South America, with description of three new species (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zool. Anz. 283: 124–141 - get paper here
  • PEREZ, RENATA; SÍRIA RIBEIRO & MÁRCIO BORGES-MARTINS 2012. Reappraisal of the taxonomic status of Amphisbaena prunicolor (Cope 1885) and Amphisbaena albocingulata Boettger 1885 (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 3550: 1–25 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2002. AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF AMPHISBAENA (SQUAMATA, AMPHISBAENIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(15):351-362 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini,P.E. 1991. Two new small species of Amphisbaena from the fossil dune field of the middle Rio São Francisco, State of Bahia, Brasil (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). Pap. Avul. Univ. Sao Paulo. 37 (17): 259-276
  • Varela, Esperanza Amalia 1999. Tipos de la colección herpetológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina. [type catalog] Iheringia, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre (87): 57-74
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