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Amphisbaena steindachneri STRAUCH, 1881

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-de-Duas-Cabeças, Cobra-Cega 
SynonymAmphisbaena steindachneri STRAUCH 1881
Rhinoblanus oxyrhynchus STRAUCH 1881
Amphisbaena steindachneri — GANS 1964: 391
Cercolophia steindachneri — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 2000
Cercolophia steindachneri — GANS 2005: 26
Amphisbaena steindachneri — MOTT & VIEITES 2009 
DistributionSW Brazil, Bolivia (Chaco, Santa Cruz), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: ‘‘Brasilien (Caigara; Mattogrosso).’’  
TypesLectotype: NMW 12343 (Mato Grosso) (Gans, 1964f: 389). Lectoparatypes: NMW 12342 (Caigara); ZIL 312 (Brazil). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A small to medium sized form of Amphisbaena without major fusions of head shields, though part of the nasorostral suture is lost; with enormous prefrontals; with extensive posterior prolongation of the frontals and enlargement of the postoculars. The laterally compressed head is arched and significantly smaller in diameter than the trunk, and set off from this by a nuchal constriction. The rostral tip projects strongly over the lower jaw. The form has 256 to 266 body annuli; 17 to 18 caudal annuli, the last of which surrounds the base of the vertically keeled caudal tip, possibly an autotoiny site at the seventh caudal annulus; 14 to 16 dorsal and 16 ventral segments to a midbody annulus; and four precloacal pores in an interrupted series. Only the lateral sulci are strongly indicated. All available specimens are completely faded. (Gans 1964: 391)

Detailed description: Gans 1964: 391 
CommentRhinoblanus oxyrhynchus Strauch, 1881 is a manuscript name for types of A. steindachneri. Not available as published in synonymy (International Code of Zoological Nomenclature,1961: art. 11d.).

Distribution: not listed for Argentina fide AVILA et al. 2010, Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina. 
EtymologyNamed after Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), Austrian zoologist. Obituary in Pietschmann (1919). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Costa HC, Welton LJ, Hallermann J 2018. An updated diagnosis of the rare Amphisbaena slateri Boulenger, 1907, based on additional specimens (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae). Evolutionary Systematics 2(2): 125-135 - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215 - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130 - get paper here
  • Gans, Carl 1964. The South American species of Amphisbaena with a vertically keeled tail (Reptilia, Amphisbaenidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 45 (3/5): 387-416
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M. B. 1995. A preliminary list of the reptiles and amphibians of the El Refugio biological reserve. In: Forsyth, A. (ed.), A report on aspects of biodiversiy and conservation potential in El Refugio. Conservation International, Washington. Pp. 21-26.
  • Mott, Tamí; David R. Vieites 2009. Molecular phylogenetics reveals extreme morphological homoplasy in Brazilian worm lizards challenging current taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51 (2): 190-200 - get paper here
  • Pietschmann, V. 1919. Franz Steindachner. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 33: 47-48 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1881. Bemerkungen über die Eidechsenfamilie der Amphisbaeniden. Mel. Biol. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 11: 355-479 (reprinted: Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 28: 45-131) - get paper here
  • Strussmann, Christine & Tami Mott 2009. Sympatric amphisbaenids from Manso Dam region, Mato Grosso State, Western Brazil, with the description of a new two-pored species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 44 (1): 37 – 46 - get paper here
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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