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Amyda ornata (GRAY, 1861)

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Higher TaxaTrionychidae (Trionychinae), Trionychoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesAmyda ornata ornata (GRAY 1861)
Amyda ornata jongli PRASCHAG & GEMEL 2022
Amyda ornata phayrei (THEOBALD 1868) 
Common Names 
SynonymTrionyx ornatus GRAY 1861: 422
Amyda ornata ornata — FRITZ et al. 2014
Amyda ornata ornata — TTWG 2017: 164
Amyda cartilaginea ornata — TTWG 2017: 164
Amyda ornata ornata — TTWG 2021

Amyda ornata phayrei (THEOBALD 1868)
Trionyx phayrei THEOBALD 1870
Trionyx phayrii — BOULENGER 1889
Trionyx phayrei — DE ROOIJ 1915: 328
Amyda ornata phayrei — FRITZ et al. 2014
Amyda ornata phayrei — TTWG 2017: 164
Amyda cartilaginea phayrei — TTWG 2017: 164
Amyda ornata phayrei — TTWG 2021 
DistributionBangladesh, W Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, N India

ornata: W Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos; Type locality: Cambodia)

jongli: SE Bangladesh, India (Mizoram, Tripura, Assam); Type locality: Sangu River near Dohazari, Chittagong hill tracts, south-eastern Bangladesh.

phayrei: Myanmar, Thailand; Type locality: Arakan Hills, near Pathein (Bassein), Myanmar.  
TypesTypes: BMNH 1946.1.22.6-7 listed as type of Trionyx ornata
Holotype. NHMW 40278 (Natural History Museum Vienna, herpetological collection): subadult specimen; skull and lower jaw; incomplete postcranial skeleton: parts of discus, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle and extremities (Figs 2–5). Paratypes. 5 living voucher specimens, one male and four females in the facility of “Turtle Island”, NHMW 41463: 1–5 (Fig. 6a–j). Location of origin for all five paratypes: Sangu River near Dohazari (terra typica), Chittagong hill tracts, south-eastern Bangladesh (same location as holotype-specimen). The specimens will be transferred post mortem to the herpetological collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna. 
CommentSynonymy: There has been some confusion between Trionyx and Testudo phayrei in the older literature (see also that entry and references therein). Fritz et al. 2014 revalidated Amyda ornata ornata and A. o. phayrei. However, they did not provide much detail about revised diagnoses but do provide a map of the two A. ornata subspecies. TTWG 2017 is undecided about the status of ornata and lists it borth as valid species and subspecies of cartilaginea.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers and tributaries, lakes)d

Distribution: see maps in TTWG 2017: 162, 163. 
EtymologyNamed after the ornate pattern, visible on some specimens.

T. phayrei was named after Lieut.-Col. Sir A. P. Phayre, Chief Commissioner of British Birma.

A. o. jongli was named after local fishermen in Bangladesh who call this softshell turtle “jongli” in Bengali, deriving from “jangala” in Sanskrit. It means wild and ferocious, as the animals are powerful and struggle when captured. Simultaneously it means also “...coming from rivers of jungle woodlands”. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the chelonians, rhynchocephalians, and crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Fritz, Uwe; Richard Gemel, Christian Kehlmaier, Melita Vamberger, Peter Praschag 2014. Phylogeography of the Asian softshell turtle Amyda cartilaginea (Boddaert, 1770): evidence for a species complex. Vertebrate Zoology 64 (2): 229-243 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1861. Description of a soft tortoise from Camboja. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 7: 422 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G.; Tint Lwin, Naing Win, Htay Lin Aung, Kalyar Platt & Thomas R. Rainwater, Pp. 2017. An interview-based survey to determine the conservation status of Softshell Turtles (Reptilia: Trionychidae) in the Irrawaddy Dolphin Protected Area, Myanmar. JoTT 9 (12): 10998–11008 - get paper here
  • Praschag, Peter, and Richard Gemel. " 2022. A new subspecies of the Asiatic softshell turtle Amyda ornata (Gray, 1861) from its northern distribution range. Herpetozoa 35 (2022): 81-93 - get paper here
  • Rahman, Shahriar Caesar; Sheikh M.A. Rashid, Rupa Datta, Passing Mro, and Chirag J. Roy 2015. Status, Exploitation, and Conservation of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2015, Vol. 14, No. 2: 130-135. - get paper here
  • Theobald, William 1868. Catalogue of the reptiles of British Birma, embracing the provinces of Pegu, Martaban, and Tenasserim; with descriptions of new or little-known species. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 10: 4-67. - get paper here
  • TTWG; Anders G.J. Rhodin, John B. iverson, Roger Bour, Uwe Fritz, Arthur GeoRges, H. BRadley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk 2017. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (8th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Pritchard, P.C.H., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Ed Chelonian Research Monographs 7:1–292. doi: 10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
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