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Andinosaura hyposticta (BOULENGER, 1902)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Boulenger's Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymProctoporus hypostictus BOULENGER 1902: 55
Proctoporus hypostictus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 239
Proctoporus hypostictus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Riama hyposticta — DOAN & CASTOE 2005
Riama hyposticta — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2011
Andinosaura hyposticta — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionEcuador, elevation 777–2700 m, Colombia (Nariño)

Type locality: Paramba, Ecuador, elevation 1160 m.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.31.31 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Riama hyposticta can be distin- guished from R. crypta by the following (condition for R. crypta in parentheses): frontonasal equal to or slightly longer than frontal (shorter than frontal); nasoloreal suture complete [= loreal present] (usually absent [= loreal absent], exceptionally complete); superciliary series complete, composed of five or six scales (incomplete, one); dorsally with scattered brown spots (distinct dorsolateral stripe present at least anteriorly) and ventrally dark brown with conspicuous transverse white bars and spots [yellow in life] (small cream or brown spots or longitudinal narrow lines); maximum SVL in males 82 mm (69 mm).
Riama hyposticta can be distinguished from Colombian congeners, except R. columbiana, by the texture of the dorsal scales (keeled vs. strongly striated in R. striata, rugose in R. stellae, smooth in R. laevis and R. afrania, and smooth, at least anteriorly, in R.simotera). From Riama columbiana, R. hyposticta can be distinguished by the number of transverse dorsal scale rows (31–32 vs. 41–49 in R. columbiana). Additionally, it can be distinguished by the following (condition for Riama hyposticta in parentheses): R. striata has 33–39 (31–32) transverse dorsal scale rows in males and the nasoloreal suture usually absent (complete [= loreal present]); R. laevis has 11 (16–18) longitudinal dorsal scale rows and two (three) genials; R. afrania has 38–42 (31–32) transverse dorsal scale rows, 21–23 (19-20) transverse ventral scale rows and 7–9 (six) femoral pores per hind limb in males; R. stellae has 21–23 (19–20) transverse ventral scale rows, 7–8 (six) femoral pores per hind limb in males, and 3–4 (six) lateral scale rows. Riama simotera occurs on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border. Riama simotera has one or two (six) lateral scale rows and one or two (three) genials.
Similarly, Riama hyposticta can be distinguished from congeners occurring in Ecuador and Peru by meristic characters (condition for Riama hyposticta in parentheses). Riama anatoloros has 4–12 (two) scales between femoral pores; R. cashcaensis has 3–6 (two) scales between femoral pores in males, the nasoloreal suture absent [= loreal absent] (complete [= loreal present]) and the superciliary series incomplete, usually one scale (complete, 5–6); R. colomaro- mani, R. meleagris, and R. stigmatoral have the superciliary series incomplete (complete); in R. labionis the supralabial-subocular fusion is present (absent); R. orcesi, R. raneyi, R. unicolor and R. vespertina have usually three (four) supraoculars; in R. balneator and R. petrorum, the naso-loreal suture is absent [= loreal absent] (complete [= loreal present]); R. vieta has rugose (keeled) dorsal scales; R. oculata has 34–36 (31–32) transverse dorsal scale rows in males and 7–11 (six) lateral scale rows. Additionally, Riama hyposticta can be distinguished from congeners occurring in Venezuela and the island of Trinidad by the following: in Riama rhodogaster the differentiated lateral scale rows is absent (present), and the scales between femoral pores in males are absent (two); R. inanis has 11–12 (six) femoral pores per hind limb in males; R. achlyens has 37–40 (31–32) transverse dorsal scale rows; R. shrevei has zero (two) scales between medialmost femoral pores; R. luctuosa has 9–14 (six) femoral pores per hind limb. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, hypostictus, is an adjective from the Greek words hypo, meaning beneath, and stictus, meaning spotted. The name probably refers to the white spots in the ventral color pattern. 
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1902. Descriptions of new batrachians and reptiles from northwestern Ecuador. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9 (49): 51-57 - get paper here
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416. - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Kizirian, D. A. 1996. A review of Ecuadorian Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Herpetological Monographs 10: 85-155 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales-Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
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