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Andinosaura oculata (O'SHAUGHNESSY, 1879)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Tropical Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymEcpleopus oculatus O'SHAUGHNESSY 1879: 297
Oreosaurus oculatus — BOULENGER 1885
Proctoporus oculatus — BURT & BURT 1933: 73
Proctoporus oculatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 239
Proctoporus oculatus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Riama oculata — DOAN & CASTOE 2005
Andinosaura oculata — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionEcuador, elevation 1000–3300 m

Type locality: Intac, Ecuador  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.31.21 
DiagnosisOriginal Description: Head rather long and narrow. Ear distinct. Internasal and frontal plates equal, the suture between them straight no fronto-nasals; a pair of fronto-parietals, nearly as long as the frontal, in contact throughout their length; interparietal large, broad; parietals large, pentagonal; two postparietals. Nostril in middle of a large nasal plate, which is followed by a quadrangular frenal. An elongate plate at the angle of the mouth, and five supralabials temporals large, polygonal. Submental elongate, followed by only two pairs of contiguous postmentals a third pair are widely separated by a group of wedge-shaped and pentagonal plates, which occupy the rest of the space as far as the first gular row of scales, of which there are three small and three large before the collar. Dorsal scales narrow, elongate, cach scale elevated into a ridge in the middle, in 36 transverse series between the occi put and the root of the tail; scales of the sides much smaller, round, convex or granular on side of neck and axillary region; of belly in 10 longitudinal series, the middle ones square, the outer oues narrower. Tail with scales like the back and the belly. Preanal scutes 2, 4. The fore limb reaches to the middle of the eye, the hind limb two thirds the length of the side.” (O’Shaughnessy 1879).

Coloration: “Brown above; a longitudinal stripe of lighter brown edged with black on each side of the back from the occiput to the tail. Ten or eleven conspicuous ocelli, white in the centre, and surrounded by a black ring, along the side of the body; beneath each one of these a smaller white spot is visible. All the ventral scutes and those of the under surface of the limbs black in the middle, white on the edges, the black forming longitudinal stripes.” (O’Shaughnessy 1879). 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, oculatus, is a Latin adjective that means "adorned with eyes" and probably refers to the lateral ocelli in the dorsal color pattern of this species. 
References
  • Arteaga AF, Bustamante-Enríquez LM and Guayasamin JM 2013. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Mindo. http://www.tropicalherping.com - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, C. E., and M. D. Burt 1933. A preliminary check list of the lizards of South America. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 28: 1-104.
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416. - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Dueñas, M R & Valencia, J H; 2019. Andinosaura oculata (Tropical Lightbulb Lizard) Predation. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 134 - get paper here
  • Kizirian, D. A. 1996. A review of Ecuadorian Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Herpetological Monographs 10: 85-155 - get paper here
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1879. Description of new species of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 4: 295-303 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales-Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
 
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