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Anilios bituberculatus (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Asiatyphlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Prong-snouted Blind Snake 
SynonymOnychocephalus bituberculatus PETERS 1863: 233
Typhlops bituberculatus — WAITE 1918: 27
Typhlops bituberculatus — BOULENGER 1893: 48
Typhlops bituberculatus — WAITE 1918: 27
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — ROBB 1966: 676
Typhlina bituberculata — COGGER 1975
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — STORR 1981: 241
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — COGGER et al. 1983: 195
Libertadictus bituberculatus — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984: 105
Libertadictus bituberculatus — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 40
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 59
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — COGGER 2000: 589
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — STORR et al. 2002: 20
Austrotyphlops bituberculatus — WALLACH 2006
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 408
Libertadictus bituberculatus — HOSER 2012: 22
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — MARIN et al. 2013
Libertadictus (Libertadicus) bituberculatus — HOSER 2013: 43
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — WILSON & SWAN 2013: 438
Anilios bituberculatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 37
Anilios bituberculatus — HEDGES et al. 2014
Anilios bituberculatus — PYRON & WALLACH 2014
Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus — COGGER 2014: 797
Anilios bituberculatus — TIATRAGUL et la. 2023 
DistributionAustralia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia)

Type locality: “Buchsfelde bei Adelaide in Südaustralien” [= Loos, near Grawler, South Australia]  
TypesLectoype: ZMB 4723 (syntype: ZMB 4724), designated by Wells & Wellington 1985 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A moderately dark, moderately small, slender, long-snouted blind-snake with snout strongly trilobed (as seen from above) and slightly angular in profile, 20 midbody scale rows and nasal cleft proceeding from second labial (from Storr 1981). 
CommentType species: Onychocephalus bituberculatus Peters 1863 is the type species of the genus Libertadictus Wells & Wellington 1984: 104, a junior synonym of Anilios (fide Shea 2015). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin bis (= twice) + tuberculatus (= warty), alluding to the protuberances on each of the internasal scales, giving the species a distinctive ‘trilobed’ nose (”...jederseits neben demselben bilden ... einen vorspringenden Höcker...” (Peters 1863: 233). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • CHIACCHIO, MICHELE; ANNEGRET GRIMM-SEYFARTH<br />KLAUS HENLE<br /> AND JEAN-BAPTISTE MIHOUB 2020. Water availability as a major climatic driver of taxonomic and functional diversity in a desert reptile community. Ecosphere 11(7):e03190. 10.1002/ecs2.3190 - get paper here
  • Cogger H.G., Cameron EE & Cogger HM 1983. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Volume 1: AMPHIBIA AND REPTILIA. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Gower, David J; James F Fleming, Davide Pisani, Freek J Vonk, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Leo Peichl, Sonja Meimann, Nicholas R Casewell, Christiaan V Henkel, Michael K Richardson, Kate L Sanders, Bruno F Simões 2021. Eye-Transcriptome and Genome-Wide Sequencing for Scolecophidia: Implications for Inferring the Visual System of the Ancestral Snake. Genome Biology and Evolution, 13 (12): evab253, - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R.T. 2012. A review of the extant scolecophidians (“blindsnakes”) including the formal naming and diagnosis of new tribes, genera, subgenera, species and subspecies for divergent taxa. Australasian J. Herpetol. 15: 1–64. - get paper here
  • Hoser, R.T. 2013. The description of new snake subgenera, species and subspecies from Australia (Squamata: Serpentes). Australasian J. Herpetol. 16: 39–52
  • Marin, J., Donnellan, S.C., Hedges, S.B., Puillandre, N., Aplin, K., Doughty, P., Hutchinson, M.N., Couloux, A. & Vidal, N. 2013. Hidden species diversity of Australian burrowing snakes (Ramphotyphlops). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, doi: 10.1111/bij.12132 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Eine Übersicht der von Hrn. Richard Schomburgk an das zoologische Museum eingesandten Amphibien, aus Buchsfelde bei Adelaide in Südaustralien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (April): 228-236 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.A. & Wallach, V. 2014. Systematics of the blindsnakes (Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopoidea) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zootaxa 3829 (1): 001–081 - get paper here
  • Robb,J. 1966. The generic status of Australasian typhlopids (Reptilia: Squamata). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 9: 675-679 - get paper here
  • Shea, G.M. 1999. Waite’s blind snakes (Squamata: Scolecophidia: Typhlopidae): identification of sources and correction of errors. Rec. Austral. Mus. 51 (1): 447-450 - get paper here
  • Shea, G.M. 2015. A new species of Anilios (Scolecophidia: Typhlopidae) from Central Australia. Zootaxa 4033 (1): 103–116 - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1981. The genus Ramphotyphlops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) in Western Australia. Rec. West. Austr. Mus. 9 (3): 235-271 - get paper here
  • Storr, G.M., Smith, L.A. & Johnstone, R.E. 2002. Snakes of Western Australia, Revised edition. Perth: Western Australian Museum, xiii + 309 pp
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Tiatragul, S., Skeels, A., & Keogh, J. S. 2023. Paleoenvironmental models for Australia and the impact of aridification on blindsnake diversification. Journal of Biogeography, 50, 1899–1913 - get paper here
  • Waite, E. R. 1918. Review of the Australian blind snakes. Rec. South Austral. Mus. 1: 1-34 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V. 2006. The nomenclatural status of Australian Ramphotyphlops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 42 (1): 8-24 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wells R W; Wellington C R 1984. A synopsis of the class Reptilia in Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1 (3-4): 73-129 [31 Dec 1983 on cover]
  • Wells, R. W. and Wellington, C. R. 1985. A classification of the Amphibia and Reptilia of Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology, Supplementary Series (1): 1-61 [sometimes cited as 1983] - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2013. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 4th ed. New Holland Publishers, 592 pp.
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