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Anolis anchicayae POE, VELASCO, MIYATA & WILLIAMS, 2009

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis anchicayae POE, VELASCO, MIYATA & WILLIAMS 2009
Dactyloa anchicayae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa anchicayae — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionColombia (incl. Valle del Cauca), Ecuador

Type locality: Colombia, Valle, San Isidro  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 160234, adult male, 5 August 1977, Helen Chin. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Anolis anchicayae is similar to A. peraccae and A. fasciatus. These three species share keeled dorsal head scales, a double row of middorsal caudal scales, absence of dewlap in females, absence of caudal transverse vertebral processes posteriorly, and an elongate anterior nasal scale that reaches the rostral but does not contact the sulcus between the rostral and first supralabial. Anolis anchicayae is most easily distinguished from A. peraccae by larger size (to 54 mm SVL in A. peraccae; to 63 mm in A. anchicayae; Fig. 6) and color pattern (A. anchicayae is predominantly yellow-green on its flanks with an elongate ocellus from eye to shoulder and a yellow-green dewlap in males; A. peraccae is predominantly brown on its flanks with no shoulder ocellus and a cream-colored male dewlap). Anolis anchicayae is most easily distinguished from A. fasciatus by size (to 72 mm SVL in A. fasciatus; to 63 mm in A. anchicayae) and male dewlap color (white with gray scales in A. fasciatus, yellow-green in A. anchicayae). Anolis anchicayae can be distinguished from other South American Anolis as follows (groupings are informal according to Savage and Guyer [1989] and others and used only for organizational purposes; no relationships are implied): from ‘‘beta’’ anoles (5 ‘‘Norops’’; with which it is unlikely to be confused) by the absence of transverse processes on posterior caudal vertebrae (present in beta Anolis); from phenacosaur and tigrinusgroup Anolis (A. heterodermus, A. inderenae, A. nicefori, A. bellipeniculus, A. carlostoddi, A. euskalerriari, A. neblininus, A. orcesi, A. tetarii, A. vanzolinii, A. ruizi, A. solitarius, A. menta, A. nasofrontalis, A. pseudotigrinus, A. tigrinus, A. menta, A. lamari, A. vaupesianus, A. jacare, A. umbrivagus, A. paravertebralis, A. williamsmitteremeierorum) by possessing strongly keeled head scales superior to the orbits (mostly smooth or pustulose in phenacosaur and tigrinus-group Anolis); from latifrons- and some aequatorialis-group Anolis (A. latifrons, A. frenatus, A. fraseri, A. danieli, A. apollinaris, A. casildae, A. squamulatus, A. princeps, A. purpurescens, A. agassizi, A. eulaemus, A. maculigula) by much smaller size (. 100 mm SVL in these species); from some punctatus-group Anolis (A. cuscoensis, A. soinii, A. huilae, A. transversalis, A. boettgeri, A. deltae, A. dissimilis, A. santamartae) by displaying scales separating the supraorbital semicircles (supraorbital semicircles in contact in these species); from other punctatus- and aequatorialis-group Anolis (A. chocorum, A. calimae, A. antioquiae, A. fitchi, A. aequatorialis, A. megalopithecus) in the lack of a dewlap in females (female dewlap present in these species); from A. punctatus and the proboscis Anolis (A. proboscis, A. laevis, A. phyllorhinus) by the absence of swelling on the snout of the male (swelling present in males of these species); from mirus-group Anolis (A. mirus, A. parilis) by the presence of a broad, raised toepad (toepad narrow and continuous with first phalanx in mirus group); from A. chloris in body color and pattern (solid bright green in A. chloris; banded pattern of browns and greens in A. anchicayae); from A. festae and A. nigrolineatus (the name is a probable synonym of A. festae; Williams, 1982) in male dewlap pattern (dark elongate blotch in these species; absent in A. anchicayae); from A. caquetae in absence of contact between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; from A. propinqus in number of subdigital lamellae (27 in A. propinqus, 16–20 in A. anchicayae); from A. gemmosus in the condition of the nasal scale (elongate anterior nasal contacts sulcus between rostral and first supralabial in A. gemmosus; is separated from sulcus by small scale inferior to naris in A. anchicayae).
CommentSpecies groups: Dactyloa punctata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyThe species is named for its type locality, the Anchicaya River valley. 
  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Pinto, M.A., Calderón, M.L., Medina, G.F. & Méndez, M.A. 2020. Herpetofauna from two municipalities of southwestern Colombia. Biota Colombiana 21(1): 41-57. DOI: 10.21068/c2020.v21n01a04 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, S.; Velasco, J.; Miyata, K. & Williams, E.E. 2009. Descriptions of two nomen nudum species of Anolis lizard from Northwestern South America. Breviora (516): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Rengifo M, Jhon Tailor; Fernando C. Herrera, Francisco J. Purroy 2014. Diversidad de una comunidad de Anolis (Iguania: Dactyloidae) en la selva pluvial central, departamento del Chocó, Colombia. Basic and Applied Herpetology 28: 51-63 - get paper here
  • Rengifo M., J. T., Castro Herrera, F. & Purroy Iraizos, F. J. 2015. Uso de hábitat y relaciones ecomorfológicas de un ensamble de Anolis (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae) en la región natural Chocoana, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 31 (2): 159-172 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
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