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Anolis apletophallus KÖHLER & SUNYER, 2008

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis apletophallus KÖHLER & SUNYER 2008
Anolis limifrons — BOCOURT 1873 (part)
Anolis limifrons — DUNN 1930 (part)
Anolis limifrons — BARBOUR 1934 (part)
Anolis limifrons — BREDER 1946 (part)
Norops apletophallus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops apletophallus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPanama (Panamá Province)

Type locality: Panama City, Metropolitan National Park (8°58’60’’N, 79°32’46’’W), 45 m elevation, Panamá Province, Panama.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 85307, an adult collected 26 January 2006 by Gunther Köhler, Javier Sunyer, Abel A. Batista R. and Marcos Ponce. Field tag number GK 1672. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen 47.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe, 2004) that is most similar in external morphology to a cluster of Central American species that are long-legged (longest toe of adpressed hindlimb reaches to mid-eye or beyond), have a single elongated prenasal scale, smooth to slightly keeled ventral scales, and slender habitus, often delicate (i.e., Anolis dollfusianus, A. limifrons, A. ocelloscapularis, A. rodriguezii, A. yoroen- sis, A. zeus). Within this cluster of species, A. apletophallus is most similar to A. limifrons from which it is readily distinguished by hemipenis morphology: hemipenis small and unilobed in A. limifrons, large and bilobed in A. apletophallus (Fig. 6). Anolis apletophallus differs from the remaining species in this cluster by the following characteristics (con- dition for A. apletophallus in parentheses): Anolis dollfusianus: Hemipenis unilobed (bilobed); ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis ocelloscapularis: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate); an ocellated shoulder spot present (absent). Anolis rodriguezii: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis yoroensis: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis zeus: Hemipenis unilobed (bilobed); male dewlap uniformly dull white (almost uniformly orange) [from KÖHLER & SUNYER 2008].
CommentSpecies group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyThe name apletophallus is formed from the Greek words apletos (immense) and phallos (penis) and is used as a noun in apposition. 
  • Barbour, T. 1934. The anoles. II. The mainland species from México southward. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 77: 121-155. - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. E. 1873. In: A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv; In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Ce Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Livr. 2-15, pp. 33-860. - get paper here
  • Breder, C. M. 1946. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rio Chucunaque drainage, Darién, Panamá, with notes on their life histories and habitats. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 86: 379-435 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R. 1930. Notes on Central American Anolis. Proc. New England Zool. Club 12: 15-24
  • Köhler, Gunther and Javier Sunyer 2008. TWO NEW SPECIES OF ANOLES FORMERLY REFERRED TO AS ANOLIS LIMIFRONS (SQUAMATA: POLYCHROTIDAE). Herpetologica 64 (1): 92-108 - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Stapley J, Garcia M, Andrews RM 2015. Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate. PLoS One 10 (2): e0115450. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115450 - get paper here
  • Tollis, Marc; Elizabeth D. Hutchins, Jessica Stapley, Shawn M. Rupp, Walter L. Eckalbar, Inbar Maayan, Eris Lasku, Carlos R. Infante, Stuart R. Dennis, Joel A. Robertson, Catherine M. May, Michael R. Crusoe, Eldredge Bermingham, Dale F. DeNardo, S. T 2018. Comparative Genomics Reveals Accelerated Evolution in Conserved Pathways during the Diversification of Anole Lizards. - get paper here
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