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Anolis bimaculatus (SPARRMAN, 1784)

IUCN Red List - Anolis bimaculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Statia Bank Tree Anole, Panther Anole 
SynonymLacerta bimaculata SPARRMAN 1784:170
Cordylus bimaculatus — MEYER 1795: 18
Xiphosurus bimaculata — FITZINGER 1826
Ctenonotus bimaculatus — FITZINGER 1843: 64
Ctenodon bimaculatum — BRÜHL 1886
Anolis antiquae BARBOUR 1915: 74
Anolis mayeri FOWLER 1918: 8
Anolis barbudensis BARBOUR 1923: 4
Anolis bimaculatus bimaculatus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis antiguae BARBOUR 1915 — LAZELL 1972: 52 (in error)
Anolis bimaculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 228
Anolis bimaculatus — POWELL & HENDERSON 2001
Ctenonotus bimaculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus bimaculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: St. Eustatius, St. Christopher, Nevis

Type locality: St. Eustatius.  
TypesHolotype: NRM, given as Museum de Geer Royal, Stockholm.
Holotype: MCZ 10624 [antiquae]
Holotype: MCZ 16167 [barbudensis]
Holotype: Princeton University 3151; paratypes: Princeton University (7) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Ctenonotus): Support for this genus is from 46 apomorphies including seven morphological and 39 molecular ones. There are two unequivocal morphological features: maximum male snout-to-vent length increased (2: h to m); length of tail about 2.0 to 2.5 times snout-to-vent length (8: h to m). There are 21 unequivocal molecular apomorphies (see Appendix II), NICHOLSON et al. 2012: 38). 
CommentSynonymy partly after LAZELL 1972, SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988. Anolis leachii has been synonymized with A. alliaceus by Günther 1888, then revalidated and is now a full species.

Subspecies: Anolis bimaculatus leachi DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837 has been elevated to full species status.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). The bimaculatus series of anoles contains A. bimaculatus and several other sub-groups, namely the gingivinus sub-group (gingivinus, nubilus, sabanus), the leachii sub-group (leachii), and the marmoratus sub-group (marmoratus, ferreus, lividus, oculatus) [STENSON et al. 2004].

Type species: Lacerta bimaculata Sparrman, 1784: 116 is the type species of the genus Ctenonotus FITZINGER 1843: 64. 
EtymologyThe generic name Ctenonotus is derived from the Greek kteis, ktenos = comb and noton, notos = back, latinized to Ctenonotus, in allusion to the large nuchal crest in males of the type species. The name is masculine in gender. 
  • Barbour, T. 1915. Recent notes regarding West Indian reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 28: 71-78 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1923. West Indian investigations of 1922. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (132): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Bauer A.M. and Russell A.P 2017. Carl Bernhard Brühl and the Herpetological Contributions of his Zootomie aller Thierklassen. Bibliotheca Herpetologica 13 (1-2): 4-34 - get paper here
  • Bochaton, C., and M. E. Kemp 2016. Reconstructing the body sizes of Quaternary lizards using Pholidoscelis Fitzinger, 1843, and Anolis Daudin, 1802, as case studies. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology - get paper here
  • Brühl, C.B. 1874. Zootomie aller Thierklassen für Lernende, nach Autopsien, skizzirt. Bd. 1-4. Alfred Hölder, Wien: Bd. 1, 86 pp.; Bd. 2, 90 pp.; Bd. 3, 114 pp.; Bd. 4, 152 pp. (published in parts from 1874 to 1888, see Bauer & Russell 2017 for details) - get paper here
  • Burnell, K. L.;Hedges, S. B. 1990. Relationships of West Indian Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae): An approach using slow-evolving protein loci. Carib. J. Sci. 26 (1-2): 7-30 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Fowler, H. W. 1918. Some amphibians and reptiles from Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 252: 1-16.
  • Gorman, G. C.;Kim, Y. J. 1976. Anolis lizards of the eastern Caribbean: a case study in evolution. II. Genetic relationships and genetic variation of the Bimaculatus group. Systematic Zoology 25 (1): 62-77 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, Jonathan B. 1996. Dynamics of range expansion by three introduced species of Anolis lizards on Bermuda. Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 204-210 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Mayer, Gregory C. 2010. Earliest records of Anolis bimaculatus (sensu lato) from the Virgin Islands. Anolis Newsletter VI: 136-138 - get paper here
  • Meyer, F.A.A. 1795. Synopsis Reptilium, novam ipsorum sistens generum methodum, nec non Gottingensium huius ordinis animalium enumerationem. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 32 pp [for current names see Rösler & Böhme 2021] - get paper here
  • Najbar, A & Skawinski, T 2018. Anolis bimaculatus (Panther Anole) Tail bifurcation. Herpetological Review 49 (2): 325 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, R.;Passaro, R. J.;Henderson, R. W. 1992. Noteworthy herpetological records from Saint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles. Carib. J. Sci. 28: 234-234
  • Powell, Robert; Robert W. Henderson & J.S. Parmerlee 2005. The reptiles and amphibians of the Dutch Caribbean. St. Eustatius, Saba, and St Maarten. The St. Eustatius National Parks foundation, 192 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 50].
  • Rösler, Herbert & Wolfgang Böhme 2021. Das Leben von Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer (1768 – 1795) und die Herpetologie in seinen Schriften, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der „Synopsis Reptilium“. Sekretär 21: 83-129
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Savage,J.M. & Guyer,C. 1991. Nomenclatural notes on Anoles (Sauria: Polychridae): stability over priority. Journal of Herpetology 25 (3): 365-366 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Sparrman, A. 1784. LACERTA bimaculata, eine neue Eidechse aus Amerika [in German]. Der Königlich-Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Neue Abhandlungen, aus der Naturlehre Haushaltungskunst und Mechanik, für das Jahr 1784, 3(1): 173–174. - get paper here
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. and Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruikaanwijzing voor één van de meest interssante groepen terrarumdieren: Anolissen Deel I. Lacerta 61 (2): 53-64 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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