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Anolis brevirostris BOCOURT, 1870

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis brevirostris brevirostris BOCOURT 1870
Anolis brevirostris deserticola ARNOLD 1980
Anolis brevirostris wetmorei COCHRAN 1931 
Common NamesE: desert gracile anole, Shortnose Anole 
SynonymAnolis brevirostris BOCOURT 1870:11
Anolis brevirostris brevirostris — ARNOLD 1980: 10
Anolis brevirostris — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 230
Anolis brevirostris — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus brevirostris — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus brevirostris — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Anolis brevirostrus — FLEISHMAN et al. 2020 (in error)

Anolis brevirostris deserticola ARNOLD 1980
Anolis brevirostris deserticola ARNOLD 1980: 12
Ctenonotus brevirostris deserticola — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus brevirostris deserticola — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis brevirostris wetmorei COCHRAN 1931
Anolis dominicensis wetmorei COCHRAN 1931
Anolis distichus wetmorei — COCHRAN 1941
Anolis distichus wetmorei — COCHRAN 1961
Anolis brevirostris wetmorei — SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis brevirostris wetmorei — ARNOLD 1980: 14
Anolis brevirostris wetmorei — POWELL et al. 1999
Ctenonotus brevirostris wetmorei — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus brevirostris wetmorei — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (SE Haiti, SW Dominican Republic), Ile a Cabrit, Isla Beata

Type locality: “Haiti”, restricted to “within 5 km of Fond Parisien, Dépt. de l’Ouest, Haiti” by ARNOLD 1980.  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 2467B. 3 syntypes: MNHN-RA 2467 (paralectotype), MNHN-RA 2467A (paralectotype) and MNHN-RA 2467B (lectotype)
Holotype: USNM 83881 [wetmorei]
Holotype: MCZ 132391 (original number ASFS V34034), an adult male, collected on 19 November 1971 by native collectors [deserticola] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 50 mm, in females to 45 mm); 3-6 rows of loreals; 0-2 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 0-3 (mode 0) scales in contact with interparietal; 2-9 postmentals; 1-5 scales in lateral contact with postfrontals; position of "preoccipital" (= preinterparietal) modally with many small scales; snout scales rectangular and generally paired with 0-4 (mode 1) azygous scales present; dorsal scales granular; ventral scales smooth, imbricate; supradigital scales smooth; tail compressed, verticillate. Dorsum variable, dark gray, medium gray, brown, pale grayish tan, tan or mottled greenish tan; a pair of dark dorsolateral stripes present on each side, often obscure or reduced; a pair of black to gray nuchal patches, variable in size and expression, outlined or not with white; dorsomedian chevrons present to absent; limbs and tail usually barred, at times faintly; often with a dark interocular bar, a dark parietal U, and a dark interocular V; dewlap variable within and between populations, (monochromatic) orange, peach, yellow, gray, olive, brown, salmon, gray, yellow-gray, cream, white (rarely), pale yellow, yellow-brown, or (dichromatic) pale orange with thin, pale yellow margin, peach or red-orange with pale yellow or cream margin, yellow with orange central spot, orange with thin, pale margin, pale yellow to yellow with basal orange blush; venter whitish to pale yellow (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 231). 
CommentIllustrations: Schwartz and Henderson, 1985. Anolis brevirostris is listed as a synonym of A. distichus by BOULENGER (1885).

Species group: Ctenonotus distichus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “brevis, -e” = short and “rostrum” = beak, proboscis, trunk. 
  • Arnold, D. L. 1980. Geographic variation in Anolis brevirostris (Sauria: Iguanidae) in Hispaniola. Breviora (461): 1-31 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. F. 1870. Description de quelques sauriens nouveaux originaires de l'Amérique méridionale. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 6: 11-18. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1931. New reptiles from Beata Island, Dominican Republic. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 44: 89-92 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Crews, David and Ernest E. Williams 1977. Hormones, Reproductive Behavior, and Speciation. American Zoologist 17: 271-286 - get paper here
  • Duchene, Sebastián; Amy Frey, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Peter H. Dutton, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Phillip A. Morin 2012. Marine turtle mitogenome phylogenetics and evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65 (1): 241-250 - get paper here
  • Fleishman, Leo J.; Maya G. F. Prebish & Manuel Leal <br /> 2020. The Effects of Limited Visual Acuity and Context on the Appearance of Anolis Lizard Dewlaps. Journal of Herpetology 54 (3): 355-360 - get paper here
  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Glor, Richard E.; Robert G. Laport 2012. Are subspecies of Anolis lizards that differ in dewlap color and pattern also genetically distinct? A mitochondrial analysis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64 (2): 255-260 - get paper here
  • Jenssen, T.A. & N.L. Gladson 1984. A Comparative Display Analysis of the Anolis brevirostris Complex in Haiti Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): 217-230. - get paper here
  • Moster, J. A., J. S. Parmerlee, Jr., and R. Powell. 1995. Anolis brevirostris. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (610) - get paper here
  • Ng, Julienne; Anthony J. Geneva, Sabina Noll and Richard E. Glor 2017. Signals and Speciation: Anolis Dewlap Color as a Reproductive Barrier. Journal of Herpetology 51 (3): 437 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert; José A. Ottenwalder and Sixto J. Incháustegui 1999. The Hispaniolan Herpetofauna: Diversity, Endemism, and Historical Perpectives, with Comments on Navassa Island. In Crother, Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles, Academic Press, pp. 93-168 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1968. Geographic variation in Anolis distichus Cope (Lacertilia, Iguanidae) in the Bahama Islands and Hispaniola. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 137 (2): 255-309 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Sherratt, Emma; María del Rosario Castañeda, Russell J. Garwood, D. Luke Mahler, Thomas J. Sanger, Anthony Herrel, Kevin de Queiroz, and Jonathan B. Losos 2015. Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities. PNAS 112 (32), doi: 10.1073/pnas.1506516112 - get paper here
  • Webster, T. Preston;Burns, John M. 1973. Dewlap color variation and electrophoretically detected sibling species in a Haitian lizard, Anolis brevirostris. Evolution 27 (3): 368-377 - get paper here
  • Webster, T.P. 1978. Geographic variation in "Anolis brevirostris": evidence from proteins and a consideration of dewlap color. Anolis Newsletter 3: 153-164 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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