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Anolis casildae AROSEMENA, IBÁÑEZ & DE SOUSA, 1991

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Casilda's Anole 
SynonymAnolis casildae AROSEMENA, IBÁÑEZ & DE SOUSA 1991
Dactyloa casildae — KÖHLER 2000: 59
Dactyloa casildae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa casildae — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionW Panama (Fortuna Forest Reserve, Central Cordillera)

Type locality: Márgenes de Quebreda Frank, 1100 m elevation, 8° 44’ N, 82° 13’W, Reserva Forestal de Fortuna, Chiriquí, Panama.  
TypesHolotype: MVUP 755, male 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species (maximum SVL 114 mm) of the genus Dactyloa (sensu Nicholson et al. 2012) that is most similar in external morphology to the other members of this clade found in western Panama (D. frenata, D. ginaelisae, D. ibanezi, D. insignis, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus). Dactyloa casildae can readily be distinguished from these six species by its coloration (described below, shown in Figs. 2, 10, and 11), and from all except D. ibanezi by its very long tail (more than 2.5 times SVL). Moreover, D. casildae differs from D. ginaelisae, D. insignis, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus in having long legs (tip of fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching to eye or beyond, usually to nostril or beyond, in D. casildae vs. at most to posterior border of eye), and from D. ginaelisae, D. insignis and D. microtus in having more horizontal loreal rows (6 or more in D. casildae vs. 5 or fewer). Additionally, D. casildae has more subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe (42 or more in D. casildae vs. 41 or fewer) as well as under the fourth finger (29 or more in D. casildae vs. 28 or fewer) than D. ibanezi and D. kunayalae [Lotzkat et al. 2013].
CommentAnolis casildae is brilliant green with solid brown bars on the flanks, the throat yellow mottled with emerald-green, and its dewlap yellow with emerald green scales. The hind legs are long. It has an elongate and keeled superciliary scale reaching the mid-eye and followed by a series of subgranular superciliaries, and the anterior nasal in contact with the rostral.

Species group: Dactyloa latifrons species group (NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Arosemena F A. Ibáñez D R. DE SOUSA F. 1991. A NEW SPECIES OF ANOLIS (SQUAMATA IGUANIDAE) OF THE LATIFRONS GROUP FROM FORTUNA PANAMA [in Spanish]. Revista de Biologia Tropical 1991 (1992) 39 (2): 255-262. - get paper here
  • Chun, Wesley 2010. Miscellaneous notes on some rare and unusual anoles. Anolis Newsletter VI: 14-22 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • LOTZKAT, SEBASTIAN; ANDREAS HERTZ, JOE-FELIX BIENENTREU & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2013. Distribution and variation of the giant alpha anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of the genus Dactyloa in the highlands of western Panama, with the description of a new species formerly referred to as D. microtus. Zootaxa 3626 (1): 1–54 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E., et al. 2001. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2):709-714 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
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