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Anolis christophei WILLIAMS, 1960

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Big-fanned trunk anole, King Christophe Anole 
SynonymAnolis christophei WILLIAMS 1960: 2
Anolis christophei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 236
Anolis christophei — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Chamaelinorops christophei — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 (tentatively)
Xiphosurus christophei — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (Haiti: Massif du Nord, Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic: Cordillera Septentrional, Hato Major Prov.), from 250 ft. to 4250 ft.

Type locality: “At or near the Citadel of King Christophe, Cap Haitien, Haiti”  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 25485 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 49 mm, in females to 45 mm); 4-8 rows (mode 6) of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 1-2 (mode 1); 3-7 (mode 4) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 6 postrostrals; 4-6 postmentals; subocular scales separated from supralabials by 1 row of scales; scales in frontal depression numerous, polygonal to rounded, smooth to slightly rugose; lower eyelid without translucent "window"; middorsal scales granular, not keeled, hardly larger than flank scales into which they grade gradually; ventral scales cycloid to squarish, smooth, slightly imbricate, and arranged in transverse rows; supradigital scales multicarinate; dewlap very large, extending from midgular region to midventer; scales at edge of dewlap smooth, imbricate, larger than ventrals. Dorsum (light phase) greenish brown to yellow-brown, head distinctly greener; 4 pairs of darker brown, bronzy, or distinctly greenish brown paramedian blotches, often fused across dorsal midline to give 4 papilionaceous figures between shoulders and sacrum; interspaces between blotches mottled or marbled with darker green or brown; yellow-green to yellow-buff shoulder stripe, continuing along flank as a poorly defined lateral stripe; a yellow to greenish yellow subocular semicircle; a black to very dark brown postocular smudge; chin and throat dark gray; venter yellow to greenish yellow; tail black at tip; dorsum (dark phase) ground color dark gray with purplish tinge; markings very dark gray (nearly black) with reddish or bronzy tinge; dewlap pale grayish purple or violet, peculiarly metallic, with widely separated rows of pale yellow to whitish, grayish, or bluish scales; iris blue (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 226). 
CommentFor illustrations see Williams, 1960; Thomas and Schwartz, 1967. 
EtymologyNamed after the Citadel of King Christophe, Cap Haitien, Haiti. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Sandler, G; Frishkoff, L O; Mahler, D L & Marte, C; 2018. Geographic Distribution: Anolis christophei (Big-fanned Trunk Anole). Herpetological Review 49 (4): 714 - get paper here
  • Schirra, K.J. 1993. Anolis christophei WILLIAMS, 1960. Sauria 15 Suppl.: 261–264 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thomas, R. and A. Schwartz. 1967. The monticola group of the lizard genus Anolis in Hispaniola. Breviora (261):1-27. - get paper here
  • Vences, M. 2009. Lizard Radiations, in: Gillespie Clague, Encyclopedia of islands. University of California Press, pp. 558-563
  • Williams, E. E. 1960. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology. 1. Anolis christophei, new species, from the Citadel of King Christophe, Haiti. Breviora (117): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1962. Notes on the herpetology of Hispaniola 7. New material of two poorly known anoles: Anolis monticola Shreve and Anolis christophei Williams. Breviora (164):1-11. - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. and T. P. Webster. 1974. Anolis rupinae new species, a syntopic sibling of A. monticola Shreve. Breviora (429): 1-22 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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