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Anolis cuvieri MERREM, 1820

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPuerto Rican giant anole, Cuvier's Anole, Green Giant Anole
Spanish: Lagarto verde 
SynonymAnolis cuvieri MERREM 1820: 45
Xiphosurus cuvieri — FITZINGER 1826: 48
Dactyloa cuvieri — WAWGLER 1830: 148
Anolis velifer — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 164
Ctenonotus (Semiurus) cuvieri — FITZINGER 1843: 64
Xiphosurus velifer — GRAY 1845: 197
Anolis cuvieri — BOULENGER 1885: 23
Anolis cuvieri — STEJNEGER 1904: 627
Anolis cuvieri — FOWLER 1918
Semiurus cuvieri — GUYER & SAVAGE 1987 (in error)
Anolis cuvieri — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 246
Anolis cuvieri — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Xiphosurus cuvieri — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus cuvieri — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Ctenonotus cuvieri — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico

Type locality: see comment.  
TypesHolotype: Unlocated fide SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 122 mm, in females to 87 mm);
dewlap present in both sexes; scales between second canthals 6; 5-6 loreal rows; scales between supraorbitals 3; 3 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 7-S postrostrals; 2-4 postmentals; suboculars not in contact with supralabials; dorsals uniform, keeled or tuberculate, separated from each other by 1 or more rings of granules; about 50 dorsal crest scales on neck and body; ventrals and lateral scales same size as dorsals, not keeled or tuberculate; supradigital scales multicarinate; tail strongly compressed, basal one-half with high, fin-like crest supported by bony "rays" (elongations of neural spines), crest absent in females; dewlap very large, scale rows distant from each other, small, tuberculate, edge rounded, thickened. Dorsum green, emerald-green, yellowish green to gre~n­ ish gray clouded with brownish, and sides with blackish dots arranged in 4 indistinct crossbands; eyelids yellow to blackish, with citron-yellow spot above and behind eye and smaller spot before eye; a long white subocular spot; whitish spots on temples and sides of neck; venter white with dark gray mottling and spots; tongue and interior of mouth pale cadmium-orange; dewlap (males) yellow, edge scales white, (females) green or greenish yellow, sometimes with blue anterior and upper margins; iris hazel with brassy pupillary ring (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 246). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Grant, 1931; Rivero, 1978.

Species group: Xiphosurus cuvieri species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Terra typica: Jamaica (in error). 
EtymologyNamed after Georges Leopold Chretien Frederic Dagobert Baron Cuvier (1769-1832), better known by his pen name Georges Cuvier. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologischen Museums zu Wien. J. G. Heubner, Wien, 66 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Fowler, H. W. 1918. Some amphibians and reptiles from Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 252: 1-16.
  • Gorman, G.C. 1977. Comments on Ontogenetic Color Change in Anolis cuvieri (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 11 (2): 221. - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C. 1977. Comments on the ontogenetic color change in Anolis cuvieri (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae). Journal of Herpetology 11 (2): 221 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1931. A new species and two new sub-species of the genus Anolis. J. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 15: 219-222.
  • Guyer, C., & J. M. SAVAGE 1986. Cladistic relationships among anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae). Systematic Zoology 35: 509-531 [1987] - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Huie, Jonathan M; Ivan Prates, Rayna C Bell, Kevin de Queiroz 2021. Convergent patterns of adaptive radiation between island and mainland Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2021;, blab072, - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rand, A. S.;Andrews, R. 1975. Adult color dimorphism and juvenile pattern in Anolis cuvieri. Journal of Herpetology 9 (2): 257-260 - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Sanchez, Alejandro 2010. Observations on sleeping behavior of Anolis occultus and A. cuvieri in Puerto Rico. Anolis Newsletter VI: 174 - get paper here
  • Savage,J.M. & Guyer,C. 1991. Nomenclatural notes on Anoles (Sauria: Polychridae): stability over priority. Journal of Herpetology 25 (3): 365-366 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724. - get paper here
  • Thonis, Anna E.; Bradford C. Lister 2019. Predicting Climate-Induced Distributional Shifts for Puerto Rican Anoles. Copeia 107 (2): - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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