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Anolis elcopeensis POE, SCARPETTA & SCHAAD, 2015

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis elcopeensis POE, SCARPETTA & SCHAAD 2015
Norops elcopeensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPanama (Coclé)

Type locality: Parque Nacional G.D. Omar Torrijos H., Coclé Province, Panama (8.66815, -80.59267, 801 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: MSB 95571, adult male, collected by E. Schaad, 13 Dec 2008. Paratypes: MSB (details not copyable from pdf). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Anolis elcopeensis is a small grayish-brown anole with smooth ventral scales and short limbs. We diagnose this species relative to its 11 closest relatives (Fig. 1). Anolis elcopeensis is unlikely to be confused with A. fuscoau- ratus (Amazon basin; solid pink male dewlap), A. bocourti (Amazon basin; white male dewlap), A. tolimensis (northeastern Andes; pink and orangish-red male dew- lap), A. medemi (Gorgona Island, Colombia; pink and orange male dewlap), A. antonii (northwestern Andes; pink and reddish-orange dewlap), or A. mariarum (ex- treme northwestern Andes; orange-red and yellow dew- lap) based on geography. Nevertheless, A. elcopeensis differs from each of these species in its solid orange male dewlap color pattern. Anolis elcopeensis is most easily distinguished from the Central American members of its clade by male dewlap color (Fig. 4; except for A. gruuo) and smaller body size (maximum SVL = 45 mm, n = 35): A. gruuo (solid orange male dewlap; maximum SVL = 52 mm); A. pseudokemptoni (red-orange anterior, pink posterior male dewlap; maximum SVL = 55 mm); A. kemptoni (red-orange anterior, pink posterior male dewlap; maxi- mum SVL = 53 mm); A. fortunensis (red anterior, orange posterior male dewlap; maximum SVL = 49 mm). In the field A. elcopeensis is most likely to be confused with A. gruuo and A. carpenteri, which have similar solid orange male dewlaps (A. altae, which also is similar, does not occur in Panama); and A. limifrons and A. gaigei, with which it is frequently sympatric (Anolis elcopeensis is amply genetically distinct from each of these species; Figs 1, 2; A. gaigei is phylogenetically very distant from the fuscoauratus group, data not shown). In addition to being larger, male A. gruuo display an externally bulging tailbase in our photos, presumably indicating larger hemipenes, which we did not observe in male A. elco- mm) peensis (Fig. 5). Anolis gruuo is found at mid to high elevations (860–1,530 m) of the Serrania Tabasara from Santa Fe west 80 km to just past Hato Chami (Lotzkat et al. 2012). We found Anolis elcopeensis at mid to low elevations (245–801 m) from El Copé east to Altos de Campana and possibly further (see below). Anolis carpenteri has a dorsal greenish tint and we have observed it to become patterned only when stressed. Anolis elco- peensis is never green, and usually displays banding on the tail and a dark interorbital bar regardless of mood. Anolis carpenteri is found on the Caribbean slope at mid to low elevations. All of our collections of A. elcopeensis are on the Pacific slope. Anolis elcopeensis and A. limi- frons differ in male dewlap color (solid orange in A. elco- peensis, dirty white with or without basal yellow spot in A. limifrons). Females of these frequently sympatric spe- cies may be distinguished by limb length. The adpressed hindlimb of A. elcopeensis usually reaches to the ear, whereas in A. limifrons the hindlimb is longer, reaching anterior to the eye. Anolis elcopeensis and A. gaigei dif- fer in the condition of the ventral scales (strongly keeled in A. gaigei; smooth in A. elcopeensis). 
EtymologyThe name honors the type locality, Parque Nacional G. D. Omar Torrijos H., and the people who have worked to maintain this wonderful forest. The park previously was named P. N. El Copé. Several new species of Anolis recently have been described from the park (i.e., A. kunayalae, A. ibanezi, A. elcopeensis). 
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe S, Scarpetta S, Schaad EW. 2015. A new species of Anolis (Squamata: Iguanidae) from Panama. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9 (1) [General Section]: 1–13 - get paper here
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