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Anolis extremus GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Barbados anole
S: Lagartija de Barbados 
SynonymAnolis roquet var. extremus GARMAN 1887: 35
Anolis roquet extremus — GRANT 1959
Anolis roquet extremus — SCHMIDT 1979
Anolis extremus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 262
Dactyloa extrema — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa extrema — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Barbados, St. Lucia, Bermuda;

introduced to Venezuela (Caracas) and Trinidad

Type locality: Bridgetown, Barbados.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 6183 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 83 mm, to 60 mm in females); 4-5 rows of loreals; 0 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 0 scales between inter-parietal and supraorbital semicircles; scales behind interparietal grade gradually into dorsals; dorsal scales small, slightly swollen, keeled, slightly imbricate; ventral scales cycloid to elongate, smooth, imbricate; 3-5 postrostrals; 5-6 post-mentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; midventral scales smooth; supra-digital scales multicarinate; 4-5 rows of scales/10th caudal verticil. Dorsal ground color (males) mossy green; anterior trunk with dark brown to black markings, with or without small light spots; anteriorly may have violet or gray tones; head with blue-gray or lavender; eyelids bluish; venter yellow; dewlap orange with yellow to greenish scales; dorsum (females) olive-green, generally duller than males, may have striped or obsolete middorsal pattern (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 262). 
CommentFor illustrations see Gorman, 1968; Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Species groups: Dactyloa roquet species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Creer, Douglas A., Kevin de Queiroz, Todd R. Jackman, Jonathan B. Losos and Allan Larson 2001. Systematics of the Anolis roquet series of the southern Lesser Antillies. Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 428-441 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles. Iguanidae. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 25-50. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Giannasi, Nick;Thorpe, Roger Stephen;Malhotra, Anita 1997. Introductions of Anolis species to the Island of St. Lucia, West Indies: testing for hybrids using multivariate morphometrics. Journal of Herpetology 31 (4): 586-589 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C. 1976. Observations on the distribution of Anolis extremus (Sauria: Iguanidae) on St. Lucia, West Indies - A "colonizing" species. Herpetologica 32 (2): 184-188 - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C. & Atkins, Leonard 1968. The relationships of the Anolis of the roquet species group (Sauria: Iguanidae). III. Comparative study of display behavior. Breviora (284): 1-31 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1959. Herpetology of Barbados, B.W.I. Herpetologica 15 (2): 97-101 - get paper here
  • Helmus, Matthew R.; Jocelyn E. Behm, Wendy A.M. Jesse, Jason J. Kolbe,Jacintha Ellers, and Jonathan B. Losos 2016. EXOTICS EXHIBIT MORE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY THAN NATIVES: A COMPARISON OF THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF EXOTIC AND NATIVE ANOLE LIZARDS. In: Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy, First Edition. Edited by Spencer C. H. Barrett, Robert I. Colautti, Katrina M. Dlugosch, and Loren H. Rieseberg; John Wiley & Sons, pp. 122-138 (publication year given as 2017 in the book) - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, Jonathan B. 1996. Dynamics of range expansion by three introduced species of Anolis lizards on Bermuda. Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 204-210 - get paper here
  • Macedonia, J.M. & D.L. Clark 2003. Headbob Display Structure in the Naturalized Anolis Lizards of Bermuda: Sex, Context, and Population Effects Journal of Herpetology 37 (2): 266-276. - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Schmidt, J. 1979. Warum eigentlich immer Anolis carolinensis? Herpetofauna 1 (3): 26-29 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Thorpe, Roger S.; Yann Surget-Groba & Helena Johanss 2010. Genetic Tests for Ecological and Allopatric Speciation in Anoles on an Island Archipelago. PLoS Genet 6 (4): e1000929. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, Roger S.; Yann Surget-Groba and Helena Johansson 2008. The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in anoles. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363: 3071–3081 - get paper here
  • Wingate, D.B. 1965. Terrestrial herpetofauna of Bermuda. Herpetologica 21 (3): 202-218. - get paper here
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