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Anolis frenatus COPE, 1899

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bridled Anole 
SynonymAnolis frenatus COPE 1899: 6
Anolis frenatus — DUNN 1937: 9
Anolis purpurescens — TAYLOR 1956
Anolis frenatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Dactyloa frenata — GUYER & SAVAGE 1986
Dactyloa frenata — KÖHLER 2000: 59
Dactyloa frenata — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa frenata — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama, Colombia (Caribbean), elevation up to 900 m.

Type locality: unknown; Barbour (1934) suggested Baranquilla, Colombia; exact location uncertain according to Savage and Talbot (1978).  
TypesHolotype: Lost (fide LOTZKAT et al. 2013) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species (maximum SVL 143 mm) of the genus Dactyloa (sensu Nicholson et al. 2012) that is most similar in external morphology to the other members of this clade found in western Panama (D. casildae, D. ginaelisae, D. ibanezi, D. insignis, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus). Dactyloa frenata can readily be distinguished from these six species by the presence of a pronounced light interorbital bar with dark anterior and posterior borders, and by its unique color pattern on dorsum and flanks consisting of dark blotches or ocelli arranged to form oblique bands (Fig. 12). Moreover, D. frenata has 9 or more SPL (vs. usually 8 or fewer) to the level below center of eye. In addition, D. frenata differs from D.ginaelisae, D. insignis, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus in having long legs (tip of fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching to eye or beyond in D. frenata), and from D. ginaelisae, D. ibanezi, D. insignis, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus in having the suboculars separated from the SPL by at least one scale row (vs. suboculars and SPL in contact) [LOTZKAT et al. 2013].
CommentDistribution: Reports from Venezuela are either in error or based on misidentifications (UGUETO et al. 2009).

Savage and Talbot (1978) reported that one of the two specimens of Peters’ original description of A. squamulatus was in fact an A. frenatus mistakenly believed to have come from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela.

Genomics: Marc Tollis et al. (Arizona State University) presented a draft genome assembly of this species at SICB 2014 (see link).

Species group: Dactyloa latifrons species group (NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Barbour, T. 1934. The anoles. II. The mainland species from México southward. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 77: 121-155. - get paper here
  • BATISTA, ABEL; MILAN VESELY, KONRAD MEBERT, SEBASTIAN LOTZKAT & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2015. A new species of Dactyloa from eastern Panama, with comments on other Dactyloa species present in the region. Zootaxa 4039 (1): 057–084 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1899. Contributions to the herpetology of New Granada and Argentina, with descriptions of new forms. Philadelphia Mus. Sci. Bull. (1): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Crandell, Kristen E.; Anthony Herrel, Mahmood Sasa, Jonathan B. Losos, Kellar Autumn 2014. Stick or grip? Co-evolution of adhesive toepads and claws in Anolis lizards. Zoology 117 (6): 363-369 - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett R. 1937. The giant mainland anoles. Proc. New England zool. Club 16: 5-9
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • LOTZKAT, SEBASTIAN; ANDREAS HERTZ, JOE-FELIX BIENENTREU & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2013. Distribution and variation of the giant alpha anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of the genus Dactyloa in the highlands of western Panama, with the description of a new species formerly referred to as D. microtus. Zootaxa 3626 (1): 1–54 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Savage, Jay M. & Talbot, James J. 1978. The giant Anoline lizards of Costa Rica and Western Panama. Copeia 1978 (3): 480-492 - get paper here
  • Tollis, Marc; Elizabeth D. Hutchins, Jessica Stapley, Shawn M. Rupp, Walter L. Eckalbar, Inbar Maayan, Eris Lasku, Carlos R. Infante, Stuart R. Dennis, Joel A. Robertson, Catherine M. May, Michael R. Crusoe, Eldredge Bermingham, Dale F. DeNardo, S. T 2018. Comparative Genomics Reveals Accelerated Evolution in Conserved Pathways during the Diversification of Anole Lizards. - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N.; Gilson A. Rivas, Tito Barros and Eric N. Smith 2009. A Revision of the Venezuelan Anoles II: Redescription of Anolis squamulatus Peters 1863 and Anolis tigrinus Peters 1863 (Reptilia: Polychrotidae). Carib. J. Sci. 45 (1): 30-51 - get paper here
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