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Anolis fungosus MYERS, 1971

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Myers' Anole 
SynonymAnolis fungosus MYERS 1971
Norops fungosus — GUYER & SAVAGE 1986
Norops fungosus — KÖHLER 2000: 62
Norops fungosus — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis fungosus — KÖHLER et al. 2007
Norops fungosus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops fungosus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama

Type locality: Panama, Bocas del Toro, north slope Cerro Pando, Cordillera de Talamanca, 1450 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: KU 113451 
DiagnosisDEFINITION AND DIAGNOSIS: A tiny (47 mm. snout to vent in only known specimen, an adult male), short-legged anole of the beta group, having transverse processes on some autotomous caudal vertebrae and a pair of scale-covered, bony parietal protuberances atop rear of head. White fungus-like markings on brown dorsum, red dewlap, brown iris, yellow tongue, and black mouth and throat lining; no color repertory. All scales smooth except some on tail; middorsal caudal scales not raised in serrated crest. Upper trunk with flat granules disposed in oblique rows except for about a dozen longitudinal rows on middorsum; belly with slightly larger, conical granules. Plates atop head relatively large, frontal ridges weak, canthal ridges absent; elongated supraciliary scales lacking; no enlarged postanal scales.
The small size, white-on-brown fungous pattern (fig. 1), and a pair of small but distinct parietal knobs (figs. 2A, 9) immediately distinguish Anolisfungosus from its congeners. The absence of strongly carinate scales on top of the tail (fig. 11) is also useful in separating the species from its geographically close relatives, Anolis pentaprion and A. vociferans. See also the sections on comparisons (from MYERS 1971). 
CommentBelongs to the pentaprion group which includes seven species: fungosus, ibague, ortonii, pentaprion, sulcifrons, utilensis, and vociferans. Not listed for Costa Rica by KÖHLER (2000).

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyNamed after the noun “fungus” plus the suffix “-osus” (abounding in), in reference to the distinctive color pattern. 
  • Guyer, C., & J. M. SAVAGE 1986. Cladistic relationships among anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae). Systematic Zoology 35: 509-531 [1987] - get paper here
  • Köhler G. 1996. A new species of anole of the Norops pentaprion group from Isla de Utila, Honduras. (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae) [Norops utilensis]. Senckenbergiana biologica 75 (1/2): 23-31.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2010. A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2354: 1–18 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther; Marcos Ponce, Javier Sunyer, and Abel Batista 2007. FOUR NEW SPECIES OF ANOLES (GENUS ANOLIS) FROM THE SERRANÍA DE TABASARÁ, WEST-CENTRAL PANAMA (SQUAMATA: POLYCHROTIDAE). Herpetologica 63 (3): 375-391 - get paper here
  • Myers, C. W. 1971. Central American lizards related to Anolis pentaprion: two new species from the Cordillera de Talamanca. American Museum Novitates (2471): 1-40 [13] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Phillips, John G., David Laurencio, Sarah Burton, Elijah Wostl and Kirsten E. Nicholson. 2015. First recorded female specimen of Norops fungosus (Myers, 1971). Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 134–135 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
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