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Anolis gonavensis KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2016

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Gonave Twig Anole 
SynonymAnolis gonavensis KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 117
Anolis singularis WILLIAMS 1965: 9
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — HENDERSON & INCHAUSTEGUI 1984 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis singularis — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.)
Deiroptyx gonavensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHaiti (Île de la Gonâve), elevation 0-360 m

Type locality: Île de la Gonâve (18.75323, -72.85667), 362 m, Département de l’Ouest, Haiti.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 98172 (KJ566849), an adult male; collected 31 March 2011 by Miguel Landestoy. Field tag number USNM FS (field series) 269349. Paratype. USNM 558719 (KJ566850), near La Source, Île de la Gonâve, Département de l’Ouest, Haiti (18.94535, -73.15050), 7 m, Province Quest, Haiti; collected 2 April 2011 by S. Blair Hedges. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A moderate-sized species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. aliniger, A. apletolepis, A. divius, A. eladioi, A. prasinorius, and A. singularis by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) no white subocular stripe and no white streak onto lateral neck (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody smooth; (5) <38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal single rows of gorgetal scales or gorgetals not arranged in rows; and (7) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length/SVL <1.7). Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. gonavensis is most similar to A. aliniger, A. divius, A. eladioi, A. apletolepis, A. prasinorius, and A. singularis, but differs from all these species by having predominatly grayish brown overall coloration in life (vs. predominantly green or blue in life; however, these species are capable of rapid metachrosis to brown); at least none of the specimens of A. gonavensis known to us showed any green coloration in life. Anolis gonavensis differs from A. aliniger by the lack of a black axillary blotch (vs. such a blotch usually present in A. aliniger). Anolis gonavensis differs from A. singularis by having the sublabial scales much larger than median scales adjacent to them (vs. sublabial scales about the same size as scales medially adjacent to this row). Anolis gonavensis differs from A. eladioi and A. divius by having a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. pale blue to grayish blue in A. eladioi and A. divius). Anolis gonavensis differs from A. apletolepis by having the scales on anterior surface of thigh not or only slightly enlarged, not higher than long (vs. these scales conspicuously enlarged, mostly higher than long in A. apletolepis). Anolis gonavensis differs from A. prasinorius by having the two median dorsal scale rows only slightly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of the adjacent scales (vs. the two median dorsal scale rows distinctly enlarged, about twice the size of the adjacent scales in prasinorius). 
CommentDistribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 85 (Fig. 59).

Conservation. Given its small geographic range, highly fragmented habitats, and severe threat from deforestation, KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 consider the conservation status of Anolis gonavensis as Critically Endangered based on criterion B1ab(iii) of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN 2012).
EtymologyThe name gonavensis is derived from Île de la Gonâve, Haiti, where the type specimens of the species were collected and where it is probably restricted, and the Latin suffix– ensis (denoting place or locality). 
  • Henderson, R.W., and Schwartz, A. 1984. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of Hispaniola. Spec. PubI. Milwaukee Public Mus. Biol. and Geol. (4):1-70.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 136]
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216. - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
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