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Anolis gundlachi PETERS, 1877

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Yellow-chinned anole, Gundlach’s Anole, Yellow-beard Anole
G: Weißlippenanolis
Spanish: Lagartijo barba amarilla 
SynonymAnolis Gundlachi PETERS 1877: 705
Anolis gundlachi — BOULENGER 1885: 25
Anolis gundlachi — STEJNEGER 1904: 633
Anolis gundlachi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 273
Anolis gundlachi — BRANDLEY & DE QUEIROZ 2004
Ctenonotus gundlachi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus gundlachi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico

Type locality: “Utuado” [Puerto Rico]  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 8964 (2 specimens) 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 68 mm, in females to 45 mm); 7-S
rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 2-4; 5-9 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 5 postrostrals; 4--6 postmentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; tail with high fin, long, compressed, weakly verticillate, but about 6 vertical rows/verticil, 5 enlarged middorsals/verticil, upper edge of crest undulating in males; dorsals and laterals very small, almost granular, sharply keeled, a few middorsal rows slightly enlarged; ventrals much larger, imbricate, keeled; throat scales smaller, elongate, keeled; supradigital scales multicarinate; dewlap moderate with distinct series of keeled scales, anterior edge thickened. Dorsum dark olive, with 5 wide, nearly black lateral crossbands, barely meeting on dorsal midline (at times forming distinct hourglasses), close together on sides and separated by oblique series of small yellowish spots; wide, blackish brown postocular band over auricular opening, joining its mate on upper side of neck; top of head densely marbled with indistinct brown spots edged with dusky; edge of eyelids, subocular semicircle, spots on supralabial sutures lemon-yellow; venter dark brown, blackish, to dull olive-yellow densely marbled with blackish; chin bright lemon-yellow; limbs crossbarred olive and blackish; tail crossbarred, with uniform blackish midportion, followed by pale olive-brownish terminal portion; iris blue; tongue plumbeous; dewlap very large with thickened edge, dull orange-olive to rich brown and yellowish brown, mustard to chocolate; scales straw-colored; females and juveniles with cream to buff middorsal stripe (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 273). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Rivero, 1978; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Ecomorph class: trunk-ground.

Species group: Ctenonotus cristatellus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after Johannes Christoph (Juan Cristóbal) Gundlach (1810-1896), German zoologist and ornithologist. He was a Curator at Philipps-Universität Marburg and later at Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt, then lived in Cuba (1839-1896), except during the Civil War (1868-1878), when he stayed in Puerto Rico (Beolens et al. 2011). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Brandley, M.C. & De Queiroz, K. 2004. Phylogeny, ecomorphological evolution, and historical biogeography of the Anolis cristatellus series. Herpetological Monographs 18: 90-126 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cruz-Hernández, V., Peña, J., Martínez-Llaurador, N. & Acevedo, M.A. 2017. Anolis gundlachi (Yellow-chinned Anole) Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 636-637. - get paper here
  • Greenhawk, Norman 2015. Testing sustainable forestry methods in Puerto Rico: Does the presence of the introduced timber tree Blue Mahoe, Talipariti elatum, affect the abundance of Anolis gundlachi? Herpetology Notes 8: 141-148 - get paper here
  • INGRAM, T.; S.T. GIERY & J.B. LOSOS. 2022. Hierarchical partitioning of multiple niche dimensions among ecomorphs, species and sexes in Puerto Rican anoles. Journal of Zoology 318(2): 127-134. - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Nelson, Claire M V, and Terry J Ord. 2022. Identifying Potential Cues of Species Identity in Complex Animal Signals. Animal Behaviour 186: 121–36 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Ord, T.J. & Stamps. J.A. 2008. Alert signals enhance animal communication in “noisy” environments. PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807657105 - get paper here
  • Peters, W. 1877. Über eine von Hrn. Viceconsul L. Krug und Dr. J. Gundlach auf der Insel Puertorico gemachte Sammlung von Säugethieren und Amphibien, so wie über die Entwickelung eines Batrachiers, Hylodes martinicensis Dum. Bibr., ohne Metamorphose. Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1876: 703-714. - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Rogowitz, G.L. 1996. Evaluation of Thermal Acclimation and Altitudinal Variation of Metabolism in a Neotropical Lizard, Anolis gundlachi Copeia 1996 (3): 535-542. - get paper here
  • Sanchez, Alejandro 2010. Observations on sleeping behavior of Anolis occultus and A. cuvieri in Puerto Rico. Anolis Newsletter VI: 174 - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J. & A.R. Pearson 2000. Body Condition of a Puerto Rican Anole, Anolis gundlachi: Effect of a Malaria Parasite and Weather Variation Journal of Herpetology 34 (3): 489-491. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schoener, Thomas W.;Schoener, Amy 1971. Structural habitats of West Indian Anolis lizards II. Puerto Rican uplands. Breviora (375): 1-39 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724. - get paper here
  • Thonis, Anna E.; Bradford C. Lister 2019. Predicting Climate-Induced Distributional Shifts for Puerto Rican Anoles. Copeia 107 (2): - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2012. Zwischen Anolis und Cycluren: Unterwegs auf Puerto Rico. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 100-109 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2019. Die Herrscher des Waldes – baumbewohnende Leguane. Reptilia (Münster) 24 (138): 14-19 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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