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Anolis heterodermus DUMÉRIL, 1851

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Flat Andes Anole 
SynonymAnolis heterodermus DUMÉRIL 1851
Xiphocercus heterodermus — BOULENGER 1885: 10
Phenacosaurus heterodermus — BARBOUR 1920
Phenacosaurus heterodermus — DUNN 1944
Phenacosaurus richteri DUNN 1944 (fide LAZELL 1969)
Phenacosaurus paramoensis HELLMICH 1949
Phenacosaurus heterodermus — PETERS et al. 1970: 219
Phenacosaurus heterodermus — MYERS & DONNELLY 1996: 41
Anolis heterodermus — POE 1998
Dactyloa heteroderma — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa heteroderma — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionColombia (Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Putumayo, Valle del Cauca), Ecuador, elevation including the range of 2600-3000 m

Colombia (Cundinamarca, Caldas) [Phenacosaurus richteri]

Type locality: “Nouvelle Grenade” [= Colombia]
Type locality: “Tabio, Cundinamarca” [richteri]
Type locality: “Paramo de Sumapaz” [paramoensis]  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1664, MNHN-RA 6798. MNHN-RA 1664 (3 specimens) respectively MNHN-RA 1664, MNHN-RA 1664A and MNHN-RA 1664B; MNHN-RA 6798 (2 specimens) respectively MNHN-RA 6798 and MNHN-RA 6798A (total of 5 syntypes).
Holotype: MCZ 69120 [richteri] 
CommentType species: Anolis heterodermus DUMÉRIL 1851 is the type species of the genus Phenacosaurus BARBOUR 1920. Phenacosaurus was synonymized with Anolis by HASS et al. 1993.

Species groups: Dactyloa heteroderma species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). Prates et al. 2019 redefined the heterodermus series as follows: The largest crown clade that includes A. heterodermus and excludes A. aequatorialis, A. latifrons, A. nasofrontalis, A. punctatus, and A. roquet. 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1920. A note on Xiphocercus. Proc. New England zool. Club 7: 61-63 - get paper here
  • Beltrán I. 2019. Diurnal colour change in a sexually dimorphic trait in the Andean lizard Anolis heterodermus (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Journal of Natural History 53 (1-2), 45-55 - get paper here
  • Beltran, Ivan Camilo; Adolfo Amézquita 2015. First report of tail display during agonistic interaction in an anole species and a comment on its existence in various groups of lizards. Herpetology Notes 8: 357-359 - get paper here
  • Beltrán, Iván; Leidy Alejandra Barragán-Contreras 2019. Male courtship display in two populations of Anolis heterodermus (Squamata: Dactyloidea) from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Herpetology Notes 12: 881-884 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C. & A. H. A. Duméril 1851. Catalogue méthodique de la collection des reptiles du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Gide et Baudry/Roret, Paris, 224 pp.
  • Dunn, Emmett R. 1944. Herpetology of the Bogota area. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exacta, Fisicas y Naturales 6: 68-81
  • Dunn,E.R. 1944. The lizard genus Phenacosaurus. Caldasia 3: 57-62 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Hass, C. A., S. B. Hedges, and L. R. Maxson. 1993. Molecular insights into the relationships and biogeography of West Indian anoline lizards. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21: 97-114. - get paper here
  • Hellmich,W. 1949. Auf der Jagd nach der Paramo-Echse. DATZ 2 (5): 89-91
  • Lazell,J.D., Jr. 1969. The genus Phenacosaurus (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (325): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Mendez-Galeano, M. A., Paternina-Cruz, R. F. and Calderon-Espinosa, M. L. 2020. The highest kingdom of Anolis: Thermal biology of the Andean lizard Anolis heterodermus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) over an elevational gradient in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Journal of Thermal Biology 89: 102498 - get paper here
  • Miyata,K. 1983. Notes on Phenacosaurus heterodermus in the Sabana de Bogota, Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 17 (1): 102-105 - get paper here
  • Mueses-Cisneros, J. J. 2006. Geographic distribution: Anolis heterodermus. Herpetological Review 37 (4): 493 - get paper here
  • Myers, C. W. & M. A. DONNELLY 1996. A New Herpetofauna from Cerro Yaví, Venezuela: First results of the Robert G. Goelet American-Terramar Expedition to the Northwestern Tepuis. American Museum Novitates 3172: 1-56. - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Osorno-Mesa, H. & Osorno-Mesa, E. 1946. Anotaciones sobre Lagartos del genero Phenacosaurus. Caldasia 4: 123-130 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, Steven 1998. Skull characters and the cladistic relationships of the Hispaniolan dwarf twig Anolis. Herpetological Monographs 12: 192-236 - get paper here
  • Prates, Ivan; Paulo Roberto Melo-Sampaio, Kevin de Queiroz, Ana Carolina Carnaval, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Leandro de Oliveira Drummond 2019. Discovery of a new species of Anolis lizards from Brazil and its implications for the historical biogeography of montane Atlantic Forest endemics. Amphibia-Reptilia 41 (1): 87-103 [2020] - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales, Julián Andrés, Héctor Fabio Arias-Monsalve y Gustavo A. González-Durán 2014. Anibios y reptiles de la región centro-sur del departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 15 (1): 73-93 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Vargas-Ramírez, Mario and Rafael Moreno-Arias 2014. Unknown Evolutionary Lineages and Population Differentiation in Anolis heterodermus (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Eastern and Central Cordilleras of Colombia Revealed by DNA Sequence Data. South American J. Herp. 9 (2): 131-141 - get paper here
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