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Anolis homolechis (COPE, 1864)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis homolechis homolechis (COPE 1864)
Anolis homolechis turquinensis GARRIDO 1973 
Common NamesE: Habana Anole, Cuban White-fanned Anole 
SynonymXiphosurus homolechis COPE 1864:169
Anolis muelleri AHL 1924: 247
Anolis calliurus AHL 1924: 249
Anolis cubanus AHL 1925: 87
Anolis homolechis — BOULENGER 1885: 28
Anolis patricius BARBOUR 1929: 37
Anolis homolechis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 276
Anolis homolechis — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 332
Norops homolechis — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops homolechis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis homolechis homolechis (COPE 1864)
Anolis homolechis homolechis — SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Anolis homolechis homolechis — FLASCHENDRÄGER 2002
Anolis homolechis homolechis — GEIßLER 2005
Norops homolechis homolechis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops homolechis homolechis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis homolechis turquinensis GARRIDO, 1973
Norops homolechis turquinensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops homolechis turquinensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCuba, Isla de la Juventud

homolechis: range as stated above with exception of that of following subspecies. Type locality: Unknown; restricted to La Habana, La Habana Province, Cuba, by Ruibal and Williams, 1961.

turquinensis: Sierra Maesta, above 4900 ft. Type locality: vicinity of Cardero, Pico Turquino, Oriente province, Cuba.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.5.78
Holotype: CZACC = IZ 2900 [turquinensis]
Holotype: MCZ 28759 [patricius] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 70 mm, in females to 48 mm); total loreals 15-38; scales between supraorbitals 0-2 (strongly modally 1); 1-5 (strongly modally 3) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 6 postrostrals; 2-6 postmentals; suboculars not in contact with supralabials; dorsals small and granular; ventrals smooth, in diagonal and transverse rows; supradigital scales smooth to unicarinate; prenasal undivided; scales behind interparietal large and sharply demarcated from dorsals; tail laterally compressed, caudal crest present or absent. Dorsum clear, ashy brown, light tan, reddish brown, brown, chocolate-brown, black (no green phase); usually indications of horiwntal stripes on flanks and 4 dark dorsal chevrons; yellow markings at times present laterally; venter white, at times with dark dots at sides; dewlap large, white to gray (with a black tint at base in 1 subspecies), or white and gray; females with dorsal pattern of pale tan median rhombs from neck onto tail, venter sulfur-yellow (1 subspecies), throat reticulate with dark brown; iris gold, metallic brown, or clear greenish (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 276). 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after Schwartz 1968.

For illustrations see Boulenger, 1885; Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Ruibal and Williams, 1961; Ruibal, 1964; Schwartz, 1968. Synonymy partly after RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999.

Species group: Norops sagrei species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Ahl, E. 1924. Neue Reptilien und Batrachier aus dem zoologischen Museum Berlin. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 90 (A) 5: 246-254
  • Ahl, E. 1925. Neue Iguaniden aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin. Zool. Anz. 62: 85-88
  • Barbour, T. 1929. Another new Cuban Anolis. Proc. New England Zool. Club 11: 37
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Flaschendräger, A. 2002. Beobachtungen an Anolis-Arten in der Cordillera de Guaniguanico, Provinz Pinar del Río, West-Kuba. Herpetofauna 24 (138): 5-18 - get paper here
  • Fläschendräger, Axel 2017. Beobachtungen an einigen Anolis-Arten im westlichen Kuba. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (5): 52-63 - get paper here
  • Garrido, O.H. 1973. Distribución y variación de Anolis homolechis Cope (Lacertilia: Iguanidae) en Cuba. Poeyana (120):1-68.
  • Geißler, L. 2005. Exkursionen im Westen Kubas. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (56): 42-49 - get paper here
  • HARRISON, ALEXIS; STEVEN POE 2012. Evolution of an ornament, the dewlap, in females of the lizard genus Anolis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106: 191–201 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, Jonathan B., Manuel Leal, Richard E. Glor, Kevin de Queiroz, Paul E. Hertz, Lourdes Rodríguez Schettino, Ada Chamizo Lara, Todd R. Jackman & Allan Larson 2003. Niche lability in the evolution of a Caribbean lizard community. Nature 424: 542-545 - get paper here
  • Muñoz, Martha M.; Johanna E. Wegener and Adam C. Algar 2014. Untangling Intra- and Interspecific Effects on Body Size Clines Reveals Divergent Processes Structuring Convergent Patterns in Anolis Lizards. The American Naturalist 184 (5), DOI: 10.1086/678084 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1961. Thermal relations of five species of tropical lizards. Evolution 15: 98-111. - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1964. An annotated checklist and key to the anoline lizards of Cuba. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 130 (8): 475-520. - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. and E. E. Williams. 1961. The taxonomy of the Anolis homolechis complex of Cuba. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 125: 211-246. - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R.; Philibosian, R. 1970. Eurythermy and niche expansion in lizards. Copeia 1970 (4): 645-653 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1968. The Cuban lizards of the Anolis homolechis complex. Tulane Studies in Zoology 14: 140-184. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Ogren, L.H. 1956. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from Cuba, with the descriptionof two new forms. Herpetologica 12 (2): 91-110 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E.; Rand, A. S. 1977. Species recognition, dewlap function and faunal size. American Zoologist 17: 261-270 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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