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Anolis insignis COPE, 1871

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Decorated Anole 
SynonymAnolis insignis COPE 1871: 213
Anolis insignis — COPE 1876: 120
Anolis insignis — BOULENGER 1885: 62
Anolis insignis — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 56
Anolis microtus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970 (in part)
Dactyloa insignis — GUYER & SAVAGE 1986
Dactyloa insignis — KÖHLER 2000: 59
Dactyloa insignis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis insignis — POE & RYAN 2017
Dactyloa insignis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPanama, Costa Rica (in mountainous areas).

Type locality: San José, Costa Rica.  
TypesHolotype: Lost according to Savage and Talbot (1978), Lotzkat et al. 2013. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species (maximum SVL 160 mm) of the genus Dactyloa (sensu Nicholson et al. 2012) that is most similar in external morphology to the other members of this clade found in western Panama (D. casildae, D. frenata, D. ginaelisae, D. ibanezi, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus). Dactyloa insignis can readily be distinguished from these six species by its unique coloration of fine reticulate lines forming transverse crossbands on dorsum and flanks, and a preaxillary dark blotch (Fig. 14). Moreover, D. insignis has all dorsal and lateral body scales smooth (vs. conical, keeled, rugose or wrinkled in the other species), and the highest number of scales around midbody (190 or more vs. 178 or fewer). In addition, D. insignis differs from D. casildae, D. frenata, and D. ibanezi in having short legs (tip of fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching at most to a point between shoulder and tympanum in D. insignis), and from D. ginaelisae, D. ibanezi, D. kunayalae, and D. microtus in having more subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe (52 or more in D. insignis vs. 50 or fewer) as well as under the fourth finger (40 in D. insignis vs. 37 or fewer) [LOTZKAT et al. 2013]. For an independent diagnosis see POE & RYAN 2017. 
CommentSpecies group: Dactyloa latifrons species group (NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • BATISTA, ABEL; MILAN VESELY, KONRAD MEBERT, SEBASTIAN LOTZKAT & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2015. A new species of Dactyloa from eastern Panama, with comments on other Dactyloa species present in the region. Zootaxa 4039 (1): 057–084 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1871. Ninth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 23: 200-224 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes said to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Jiménez, R & Sandoval, L; 2019. Anolis insignis (Decorated Anole) Predation attempt. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 136 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • LOTZKAT, SEBASTIAN; ANDREAS HERTZ, JOE-FELIX BIENENTREU & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2013. Distribution and variation of the giant alpha anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) of the genus Dactyloa in the highlands of western Panama, with the description of a new species formerly referred to as D. microtus. Zootaxa 3626 (1): 1–54 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Wilson LD. 2019. The endemic herpetofauna of Central America: a casualty of anthropocentrism. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1) [General Section]: 1–64 (e168) - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Poe S and Ryan MJ. 2017. Description of two new species similar to Anolis insignis (Squamata: Iguanidae) and resurrection of Anolis (Diaphoranolis) brooksi. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 11(2) [General Section]: 1–16 (e141) - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Savage, Jay M. & Talbot, James J. 1978. The giant Anoline lizards of Costa Rica and Western Panama. Copeia 1978 (3): 480-492 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E. H. 1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (part 1): 3-322 - get paper here
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