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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Hispaniolan Chamaeleon Anole 
SynonymAnolis landestoyi MAHLER, LAMBERT, GENEVA, NG, HEDGES, LOSOS & GLOR 2016
Xiphosurus landestoyi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionDominican Republic

Type locality: Reserva Biológica Loma Charco Azul, Independencia Province, Dominican Republic (elevation: 455–526 m  
TypesHolotype: MCZ R-188774, male; paratypes: MCZ R-188775, MCZ R-188776, males) and three adult females (paratypes: MCZ R-188777, MCZ R-188778, MCZ R-188779/MNHNSD 23.2979) collected between March 22, 2010, and January 22, 2011), and two juveniles hatched from eggs laid in captivity (male paratype: MCZ R-188780; female paratype: MCZ R-188781). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large (snout-to-vent length [SVL]: 122–135 mm for males; 125–133 mm for females), lichenate anole with short limbs and tail, and large bluish dewlap with dark re- ticulations (figs. 1, 2, S2; figs. S1–S9 are available online). Possesses prominent dark stripe from above eye to corner of mouth and large nuchal ocellus anterior to shoulder (figs. 1, 2, S2, S3). Distinguishable from other large Hispaniolan Anolis by lichenate dorsal pattern, eye stripe, nuchal ocellus, dewlap color and pattern, short tail (!1.35# SVL), short limbs, subocular/supralabial contact, interparietal scale as large as ear or larger, and conspicuously flat, smooth dorsals (figs. 1, 2, S1, S2; tables S2, S3; tables S1–S12 are available online). Distinguishable from similar anoles in the Cuban chamaeleonides clade by dewlap color and pattern; absence of a large, rugose parietal casque in adults; presence of nuchal ocellus; presence of a single scale between nasal and rostral, flank scales in partial contact; weakly to strongly keeled ven- trals; and multicarinate supradigitals (table S3). Additional diagnostic information is provided in section S1(c) of the ap- pendix and table S3. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a patronym honoring Dominican naturalist Miguel Landestoy, who discovered the species. 
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten. Neue Saumfinger von Hispaniola: grüne und flechtenfarbige Anolis. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (1): 52-53 - get paper here
  • Mahler, D. Luke; Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, Julienne Ng, S. Blair Hedges, Jonathan B. Losos, and Richard E. Glor 2016. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations. The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/687566 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
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