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Anolis morazani TOWNSEND & WILSON, 2009

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis morazani TOWNSEND & WILSON 2009
Norops morazani — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops morazani — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 107
Norops morazani — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHonduras (Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro), 1780 - 2150 m elevation.

Type locality: Honduras, Departamento de Francisco Morazán, Municipio de Marale, Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro, Cataguana, 15°01’N, 87°06’W, 1910 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 87153, adult male, 10 March 2007, J. M. Butler, L. P. Ketzler, R. E. Lovich, J. H. Townsend, S. L. Travers, L. Vietti, and L. D. Wilson, original field number JHT 2041 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Anolis morazani is differentiated from all other anoles, except those in the A. crassulus group, by having the following combination of characteristics: moderately to strongly enlarged medial dorsal scales and ventral scales, no more than two scales separating the supraorbital semicircles, four to seven rows of loreals, suboculars and supralabials in contact, and heterogeneous flank squamation. This species can be distinguished from all other members of the A. crassulus group, except A. wermuthi, by having a hemipenis with a divided asulcate processus (Fig. 4; asulcate processus is not divided in A. amplisquamosus, A. anisolepis, A. crassulus, A. haguei, A. heteropholidotus, A. muralla, A. rubribarbaris, and A. sminthus). Anolis morazani may be further differentiated from A. heteropholidotus, A. muralla, and A. sminthus by having strongly keeled ventral scales (smooth ventrals in A. muralla, weakly keeled ventrals in A. heteropholidotus and A. sminthus) and a greater number of enlarged middorsal scale rows (9–12, versus 2–4 in A. heteropholidotus, 4–7 in A. muralla, and 2–6 in A. sminthus). Of the remaining species in the A. crassulus group with undivided asulcate processes, A. morazani differs from A. amplisquamosus in having irregularly enlarged middorsal scales that grade into smaller dorsolateral scales and a red dewlap (greatly enlarged middorsal scales abruptly transition to small dorsolateral scales and orange dewlap in A. amplisquamosus); from A. anisolepis in attaining a larger adult size (maximum SVL 50.7 in male and 55.1 in female A. morazani; versus 41.0 in male and 48.0 in female A. anisolepis), having a relatively longer tail (TL/SVL 2.3–2.71, versus 1.77–2.13 in A. anisolepis), and by having a red dewlap (bright pink dewlap in A. anisolepis); from A. crassulus by having fewer scales separating the internasals (2–4, versus 5–7 in A. crassulus); and from A. haguei by having fewer rows of enlarged dorsal scales (9–12, versus 14– 22 in A. haguei), a relatively longer tail in males (2.37–2.71, versus 1.59–2.11 in A. haguei). Like A. morazani, A. wermuthi also possesses a divided asulcate processus (Fig. 4), but has fewer enlarged middorsal scale rows (2–7, versus 9–12 in A. morazani) and weakly keeled ventral scales (strongly keeled ventral scales in A. morazani).
CommentSpecies group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012)

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after José Francisco Morazán Quesada (1792–1842) of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, who was elected to two terms as President of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1840 and 1845 and also served at various times as General Secretary of the Government of the State of Honduras, Honduran representative to the United Provinces of Central America, and President of El Salvador. To honor this post-colonial statesman and national hero, Honduras named its capital department Francisco Morazán, within which lies the type locality of Anolis morazani. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Hofmann, E. P., & Townsend, J. H. 2017. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17(1), 267 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, E.P., Townsend, J.H. 2020. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evol Biol 17, 267 (2017) - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, G. & J.R. MCCRANIE 2001. Two new species of anoles from northern Honduras (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 81: 235-245
  • McCranie, J. & Castañeda, F.E. 2005. The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Honduras. Phyllomedusa 4 (1): 3-16 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Townsend, Josiah H.; Larry David Wilson 2009. New Species of Cloud Forest Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the crassulus Group from Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro, Honduras. Copeia, 2009 (1): 62-70 - get paper here
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