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Anolis muralla (KÖHLER, MCCRANIE & WILSON, 1999)

IUCN Red List - Anolis muralla - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNorops muralla KÖHLER, MCCRANIE & WILSON 1999
Norops muralla — KÖHLER 2000: 63
Norops muralla — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis muralla — TOWNSEND & WILSON 2009
Norops muralla — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops muralla — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 111
Norops muralla — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHonduras (Olancho, Parque Nacional La Muralla), elevation 1440-1740 m.

Type locality: Honduras, Departamento de Olancho, Parque Nacional La Muralla, along trail to Cerro de Enmedio, 1500 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 78093 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL to 56.0 mm) differing from all other Norops by the following combination of characters: lateral scales heterogeneous; ventral scales perfectly smooth and imbricate; 4-7 rows of irregularly enlarged medial dorsal scales; longest toe of adpressed hind limb usually reaching between ear opening and posterior margin of eye; 0-2 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 5-7 rows of loreal scales; suboculars and supralabials in contact; usually 21-25 (rarely 26) lamellae under phalanges II to IV of fourth toe; a pair of enlarged postanal scales in males; and a small red dewlap with tan to dark brown gorgetal scales.
Within the crassulus group, N. muralla differs from N. laeviventris (includes N. intermedius) and N. nebulosus by its much enlargedmedial dorsal scales (only slightly enlarged in laeviventris and nebulosus), longer hind limbs (shank length/SVL ratio of 0.21-0.26 versus 0.17-0.22), greater relative tail length (TL/SVL ratio of 2.2-2.4 versus 1.6-1.8), the small red male dewlap (very small and without particular coloration in laeviventris, and very large and yellow in nebulosus). Noropsmuralla differs from N. anisolepis, N. crassulus, N. haguei, and N. rubribarbaris by having perfectly smooth ventrals (versus strongly keeled).
The new species differs from N. amplisquamosus by having the dorsal scales gradually grading into the è ank scales (dorsal scales abruptly enlarged in amplisquamosus) and a red dewlap in males (bright orange in amplisquamosus). Norops muralla can be distinguished from N. heteropholidotus by having small scales irregularly interspersed among the enlarged medial dorsal scales (uniformly large median dorsals in heteropholidotus). Norops muralla differs from N. sminthus and N. wermuthi by having perfectly smooth ventral scales (slightly keeled in N. sminthus and N. wermuthi). For comparison of selected morphometric and pholidosis characters between N. heteropholidotus, N. muralla, N. sminthus, and N. wermuthi.
CommentSpecies group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Hofmann, E. P., & Townsend, J. H. 2017. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17(1), 267 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, E.P., Townsend, J.H. 2020. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evol Biol 17, 267 (2017) - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Köhler,G., McCranie,J.R. & Wilson,L.D. 1999. Two new species of anoles of the Norops crassulus group from Honduras (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (3): 279-298 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2001. Neuerungen in der Systematik der mittelamerikanischen Saumfinger der Gattung Norops seit 1996. Iguana Rundschreiben 14 (2): 19-28
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Townsend, Josiah H.; Larry David Wilson 2009. New Species of Cloud Forest Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the crassulus Group from Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro, Honduras. Copeia, 2009 (1): 62-70 - get paper here
  • Wilson, L.D. & McCranie, J.R. 2003. The conservation status of the herpetofauna of Honduras. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 3 (1): 6-33 - get paper here
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