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Anolis onca (O’SHAUGHNESSY, 1875)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Bulky Anole 
SynonymNorops onca O’SHAUGHNESSY 1875
Tropidodactylus onca — BOULENGER 1885: 97
Tropidodactylus onca — BURT 1942
Tropidodactylus onca — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 263
Tropidodactylus onca — COLLINS 1971
Anolis onca — WILLIAMS 1974
Anolis onca — SÄNCHEZ et al. 1995: 321
Norops onca — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops onca — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops onca — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionColombia (Peninsula de la Guajira)
N Venezuela, Margarita I, La Tortuga Island

Type locality: Venezuela, and Island of Dominica.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 
Diagnosis 
CommentHabitat: sandy terrestrial.

One of the few anole species that lacks the subdigital lamellae (toe pads) and adapted to a sandy terrestrial life.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
References
  • Bernal Carlo A. & Roze J A. 2005. Lizards of the genus Anolis (Reptilia: Polychrotidae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, with description of two new species. Novedades Colombianas Nueva Epoca 8(1): 9-26 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1942. Lizards from the Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. Copeia 1942 (4): 263 - get paper here
  • Collins, James P. 1971. Ecological observations on a little known South American anole: Tropidodactylus onca. Breviora (370): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther; Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez, Marcos García Pareja, Claus Bo P. Petersen and Fausto R. Méndez de la Cruz. 2013. Notes on Anolis omiltemanus Davis, 1954 (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae). Herpetology Notes 6: 401-412.
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1875. List and revision of the species of Anolidae in the British Museum collection, with descriptions of new species. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 15: 270-281 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Peterson, J. A.;Williams, Ernest E. 1981. A case history in retrograde evolution: the onca lineage in Anoline lizards. II. Subdigital fine structure. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 149 (4): 215-268 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-C, H., O. V. Castaño-M, and G. Cárdenas-A. 1995. Diversidad de los Reptiles en Colombia. In: Rangel-C, J. O., editor. Colombia Diversidad Biótica I Bogotá. Colombia Editorial Guadalupe. pp.<br />227–325.
  • Williams,E.E. 1974. A case history in retrograde evolution: The onca lineage in anoline lizards. I. Anolis annectens new species, intermediate between the genera Anolis and Tropidodactylus. Breviora (421): 1-21 - get paper here
 
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