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Anolis pentaprion COPE, 1863

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Lichen Anole 
SynonymAnolis (Coccoëssus) pentaprion COPE 1863: 178
Anolis pentaprion — BOULENGER 1885: 64
Anolis panamensis BOULENGER 1890 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Anolis pentaprion — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 61
Anolis malkini AYALA 1986 (nom. nudum fide POE et al. 2009)
Norops pentaprion — VILLA et al. 1988
Norops pentaprion — LINER 1994
Norops pentaprion — KÖHLER 2000: 63
Norops pentaprion — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis pentaprion — CALDERON et al. 2003
Norops pentaprion — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis malkini — RENGIFO et al. 2014
Norops pentaprion — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Norops pentaprion — SUNYER & MARTÍNEZ-FONSECA 2023 
DistributionS Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, NW Colombia

Type locality: Truando River, Colombia. Locality of neotype: “at San Rafael, ca. 15 km S Los Chiles, 10.73719°N, 84.49378°W, 60 m elevation, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica”.  
TypesNeotype: SMF 83608 (designated by KÖHLER 2010); Holotype: lost (BARBOUR 1934, SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Syntypes (panamensis): BMNH 1946.8.13.7–8 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen examined 77.0 mm in males, 74 mm in females) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe, 2004) that differs from all Central American anoles except A. beckeri, A. charlesmyersi, A. cristifer, A. fungosus, A. salvini, A. utilensis by (1) having extremely short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hindlimb usually reaching to level of tympanum; ratio shank length / head length 0.49–0.84); (2) smooth, juxtaposed ventral scales; (3) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length / SVL 1.0–1.5). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. beckeri by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest) and by having gorgetal rows with 17–25 narrowly spaced scales (versus gorgetal rows with 4–10 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. charlesmyersi by having a pink dewlap in life with purple pigment between rows of gorgetal scales and regular rows with 17–25 small narrowly spaced gorgetal scales (versus a brick red dewlap with few large widely spaced gorgetal scales scattered across the dewlap or in loosely arranged rows with 4–9 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. cristifer by having a double row of slightly enlarged middorsal scales, not forming a serrated crest (versus a serrated middorsal crest, at least on posterior portion of dorsum, present in A. cristifer). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. fungosus by lacking bony parietal protuberances (versus having a pair of small bony parietal protuberances posterior and lateral to interparietal plate). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. salvini by having smooth, obliquely conical ventral scales (versus keeled), lacking a dark interorbital bar (versus present), and lacking enlarged postcloacal scales (versus males with a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales). Anolis pentaprion differs from A. utilensis by having the proximal subdigital scales of toes differentiated as slightly broadened lamellae (versus those scales granular) and by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest). [from KÖHLER 2010]. 
CommentGroup: Belongs to the pentaprion group which includes seven species: fungosus, ibague, ortonii, pentaprion, sulcifrons, utilensis, and vociferans.

Subspecies: Norops pentaprion crisitifer is listed here as valid species. Anolis pentaprion beckeri BOULENGER 1881 has been elevated to full species status by KÖHLER 2010.

Distribution: A. pentaprion has been split up into 3 species: A. pentaprion (s.str.), A. beckeri, and A. charlesmyeri by Köhler 2010. Hence the older literature lists it for other countries to the north and possibly to the south, e.g. for Ecuador by GÜNTHER 1885, or Mexico by LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
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