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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
Dactyloa peruensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPeru (Amazonas)

Type locality: 2.4 km west of Esperanza, Amazonas Province, Peru, 05°43.5539’S, 77°54.3289’W, 1857 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: MSB 72521, adult male, Steven Poe, Christian Yañez-Miranda, and Jenny Hollis, 25 April 2005. Paratypes. MSB 72522, adult female, MZUNAP 2.000188, hatchling female, same locality and collectors as holotype, 24 April 2005. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: We compare the new species to all recognized species of Anolis in Ecuador and Peru that display large smooth headscales and short limbs and tail. Anolis peruensis may be differentiated from A. heterodermus and A. vanzolinii by its smaller body size (SVL to 104 mm in A. vanzolinii, 73 mm in A. heterodermus; 56 mm in A. peruensis) and homogeneous lateral scutellation (heterogeneous in A. heterodermus and A. vanzolinii). Anolis peruensis differs from A. orcesi in possessing smaller headscales (Table 2) and differently colored male and female dewlaps (A. orcesi male: yellow with greenish blue at base, female: orange; A. peruensis male: solid yellow, female: black). Anolis peruensis differs from A. williamsmittermeierorum in male dewlap color (solid yellow in A. peruensis; tan and peach-orange in A. williamsmittermeierorum), female dewlap pattern (solid black in A. peruensis; black and white in A. williamsmitter- meierorum), internal throat coloration (gray in new species, black throat with bright yellow-orange at hinges of mouth in A. williamsmittermeierorum), larger size of dewlap scales, and smaller male and female dewlap (Fig. 2). Anolis peruensis differs from Anolis laevis in the anterior extent of the rostral scale (slight overlap of mental in A. peruensis; significant anterior extent in ‘‘proboscis anole’’ A. laevis [see Williams, 1979:fig. 1]), the number of dorsal midcaudal scale rows (one in A. peruensis, two in A. laevis) and the number of rows of loreal scales anterior to the orbit (three or four in A. peruensis, two in A. laevis). Anolis peruensis is most likely to be confused with A. orcesi and A. williamsmittermeierorum. Table 2 summarizes characteristics for these species. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, Steven; Ian Latella, Fernando Ayala-Varela, Christian Yañez-Miranda and Omar Torres-Carvajal 2015. A New Species of Phenacosaur Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae) from Peru and a Comprehensive Phylogeny of Dactyloa-clade Anolis Based on New DNA Sequences and Morphology. Copeia 2015 (3): 639-650 - get paper here
  • Prates I, Melo-Sampaio PR, Drummond LO, Teixeira Jr M, Rodrigues MT, Carnaval AC. 2017. Biogeographic links between southern Atlantic Forest and western South America: rediscovery, redescription, and phylogenetic relationships of two rare montane anole lizards from Brazil. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, available online 11 May 2017 - get paper here
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