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Anolis placidus HEDGES & THOMAS, 1989

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Neiba Twig Anole, Placid Anole 
SynonymAnolis placidus HEDGES & THOMAS 1989: 330
Anolis placidus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 315
Anolis placidus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Anolis placidus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis placidus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (Dominican Republic: Sierra de Neiba)

Type locality: Ca. 10 km N Cacique Eriquillo, ca. 24 km N Las Pinos, Independencia Province, República Dominicana.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 286864. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 46 mm, in females to 45 mm); 3 rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 1-2 (mode 2); 1-3 (mode 2) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; suboculars in contact with supralabials; 2-3 (mode 2) scales between nasal and rostral; 5-8 postrostrals; 2 clusters of spines (about 10 scales each) posteriolateral to interparietal, followed by 1 middorsal spine or cluster of spines; middorsal scales small, granular, with a longitudinal series of individual spinose crest scales separated by about 2-6 unmodified dorsals; flank scales larger than dorsals; ventrals larger than dorsals, smooth, cycloid, occasionally in transverse rows; dewlap present in both sexes, large, inset, scales large, arranged in rows, larger than throat scales, about same size as ventrals, marginal scales crowded; limbs short, scales smooth, including supradigital scales; tail laterally compressed with shallow groove on each side and a median series of spinose, keeled scales, apices directed posteriorly, separated from each other by about 2-4 smaller scales, ventral caudals strongly keeled. Dorsum pale gray with black and brown lichenate markings (darker gray or brown when active or disturbed); 3-4 faint, dark, brown or black crossbands or blotches on body, and 5-7 more distinct brown bands on tail; 2 black blotches in pelvic region; middorsal spines black; about 8 narrow, dark brown lines radiating from eye; temporal blotch and blotch posterioventral to auricular opening black; legs with narrow, brown bands; dewlap (males) pale peach anteriorly and centrally, grading to light yellow-green posteriorly, (females) dark brown with cream border (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 315). 
CommentFor illustrations see Hedges and Thomas, 1989.

Species group: Anolis angusticeps species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Hedges, S. B. and R. Thomas. 1989. A new species of Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) from the Sierra de Neiba, Hispaniola. Herpetologica 45: 330-336. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, Steven 1998. Skull characters and the cladistic relationships of the Hispaniolan dwarf twig Anolis. Herpetological Monographs 12: 192-236 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Vences, M. 2009. Lizard Radiations, in: Gillespie Clague, Encyclopedia of islands. University of California Press, pp. 558-563
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