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Anolis punctatus DAUDIN, 1802

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis punctatus punctatus DAUDIN 1802
Anolis punctatus boulengeri O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881 
Common NamesE: Spotted Anole, Amazon Green Anole
Portuguese: Anoles, Calango-Verde, Camaleão, Lagartixa-Verde-da-Amazônia, Lagarto-Verde, Papa-Vento 
SynonymAnolis punctatus DAUDIN 1802: 84
Anolis gracilis WIED-NEUWIED 1821
Anolis punctatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 112
Rhinosaurus gracilis GRAY 1845: 199 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Ptychonotus (Eunotus) gracilis — FITZINGER 1843: 65
Anolis punctatus — GRAY 1845: 205
Anolis punctatus — BOULENGER 1885: 57
Anolis punctatus — WILLIAMS 1965: 6
Anolis philopunctatus RODRIGUES 1988: 333
Dactyloa punctata — SAVAGE & GUYER 1989: 108
Anolis punctatus — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Anolis punctatus — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 131
Dactyloa punctata — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa philopunctata — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis punctatus — LIVIGNI 2013: 378
Dactyloa punctata — PRATES et al. 2014
Dactyloa punctata — MORATO et al. 2014
Anolis philopunctatus — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016
Dactyloa punctata — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Dactyloa philopunctata — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Dactyloa philopunctata — SILVA-NETO et al. 2019
Dactyloa punctata — DUBEUX et al. 2022

Anolis punctatus punctatus DAUDIN 1802
Anolis viridis WIED 1821: 132
Anolis viridissimus RADDI 1823: 60
Anolis bullaris RADDI 1823: 61
Anolis violaceus SPIX 1825: 15
Anolis nasicus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 115
Anolis catenifer AHL 1925: 85
Anolis transfasciatus AMARAL 1933: 60
Anolis punctatus punctatus — PETERS 1967: 18
Anolis punctatus punctatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 64

Anolis punctatus boulengeri O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881
Anolis boulengeri O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881: 242
Anolis boulengeri — BOULENGER 1885: 58
Anolis punctatus boulengeri — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 64
Anolis punctatus boulengeri — DIXON & SOINI 1975
Anolis punctatus boulengeri — DUELLMAN 1978: 201
Anolis punctatus boulengeri — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Pará, Rondônia, Bahia, Paraíba), E Venezuela (Bolivar [HR34: 261]), French Guiana (?), Suriname (?), Guyana,
Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia (Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santz Cruz)

boulengeri: Amazonian Peru, Ecuador, Colombia; Brazil (W Amazonas); Type locality: Canelos, Ecuador.

philopunctatus: Brazil (Amazonas); Type locality: Brasil: Amazonas: INPA/WWF Reserves (2206·Dimona), 90 km NW Manaus.

Type locality: South America  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 2340 type figurated on a plate tome IV table 66bis in Daudin
Type: BMNH: 1946.8.12.92 [boulengeri]
Holotype: MZUSP 65859, male, 18.viL84, M.T. Rodrigues, field number 84.6086; Paratypes: MlUSP 65860, male, same data as holotype; MZUSP 65856, male, INPA/WWF Reserves (l40I·Gaviiio), 20.i.&6, M.T. Rooripe5; MWSP 65857, male, and MlUSP 65858, female. INPA!WWF Reserves (JS01·Antartida). 23.i .86: M.T. Rodrigues [philopunctatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus Dactyloa). Support for this genus is based on 77 apomorphies including four morphological features and 73 molecular ones. Three morphological apomorphies are unequivocal: head decreased in length (4: q to m), size of interparietal scale increased (7: u to h), and modal number of caudal vertebrae anterior to first autotomic vertebra increased (53: 4 to 3). Thirty-three of the molecular features are unequivocal (see Appendix III) [from NICHOLSON et al. 2012].

Definition (genus Dactyloa). Members of the genus Dactyloa are defined as dactyloid lizards having: 1) the alpha condition of the caudal vertebrae (Etheridge, 1967, Fig. 2C) in which the anterior caudal vertebrae are aseptate and have transverse processes and the posterior caudal vertebrae lack transverse processes and almost always have autotomy septa but are aseptate in D. agassizi; 2) interclavicle usually arrow-shaped (Guyer and Savage, 1986, Fig. 2A), T-shaped (Guyer and Savage, 1986, Fig. 2B) in D. aequatorialis according to Poe (2004); 3) postfrontal bone present; 4) pineal foramen in suture between frontal and parietal bones; 5) supratemporal processes of the parietal usually leave the supraoccipital bone exposed above but often extend over the supraoccipital; 6) no pterygoid teeth; 7) angular process of articular may be large or reduced or absent; 8) posterior suture of dentary pronged; 9) large splenial present; 10) no lower jaw sculpturing; 11) modal number of lumbar vertebrae 3, 4 or 5; 12) modal number of caudal vertebrae anterior to first without transverse processes usually 8 or more, rarely 7; 13) supraoccipital cresting continuous across supraoccipital with or without distinct lateral processes or single central process; 14) Type I karyotype: 2N usually 36 (12M, 24m), rarely with 20 or 22m; N.F. = 42, 46, 48; no sexual heteromorphism [from NICHOLSON et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (philopunctatus): A green anole of the punctatus group very close 10 Anolis punctatus but differing from it by an orange dewlap wilh large black spots (orange-yellow in punctatus). 
CommentSynonymy: Because of the paraphyly of Dactyloa punctata relative to D. philopunctata, and given the low genetic distances among some of their individuals, Prates et al. 2014 tentatively synonymized D. philopunctata with D. punctata.

Subspecies: Nicholson et al. 2018 listed this species without subspecies, without mentioning Dactyloa p. boulengeri.

Type species: Anolis gracilis Wied Neu-Wied, 1821 is the type species of the genus Dactyloa Wagler 1830. Note: Fitzinger (1843) designated Anolis punctatus Daudin, 1802 as the type species of Dactyloa. Savage and Guyer (1991) incorrectly accepted this type designation. Fitzinger’s action cannot stand because Anolis punctatus was not among the species included originally in Dactyloa by Wagler (1830) (Art. 74 of the Code, 1999). Fortunately, a junior synonym of A. punctatus, Anolis gracilis Wied Neu-Wied, 1821 was included by Wagler (1830) as a species of Dactyloa. Savage & Guyer acted as first revisers (Art. 24.2 of the Code) and selected Anolis gracilis as the type species of Dactyloa. Continuing as first reviewers Savage & Guyer (2004) also selected Norops to have precedence over Dactyloa, and Dactyloa to precedence over Draconura if these names are thought to by synonyms.

Species groups: Dactyloa punctata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). Prates et al. 2019 redefined the punctatus series as follows: The largest crown clade that includes A. punctatus and excludes A. aequatorialis, A. heterodermus, A. latifrons, A. nasofrontalis, and A. roquet.

NCBI taxonID: 1562748 [philopunctatus] 
EtymologyNamed after the punctate pattern that many specimens show in this species.

The genus name Dactyloa is from the Greek daktylos = digit and oa = fringe with reference to the characteristic expanded pads on the digits. The name is feminine in gender. 
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