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Anolis quaggulus COPE, 1885

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis quaggulus COPE 1885: 391
Anolis quaggulus — BOULENGER 1885: 83
Anolis quaggulus — FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Anolis quaggulus — KÖHLER 2003
Anolis quaggulus — KÖHLER et al. 2006
Norops quaggulus — NICHOLSON et al. 20146
Norops quaggulus — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 10
Norops quaggulus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionE Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

Type locality: “San Juan river, Nicaragua”.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 24979 
DiagnosisOriginal description from COPE (1885): Belonging to the section of the genus with round tail and keeled ventral scales. There are seven rows of truncate and keeled dorsal scales, which are much larger than the ventrals, or the granular laterals, from which they are abruptly distinguished. Muzzle short and narrowed. Supraorbital series separated by three rows of keeled scales, and continued well on muzzle, but not to the canthus rostralis. They are separated on the muzzle by four rows of polygonal, nearly smooth scales. Facial ruge obsolete ; facial concavity shallow. The supraocular disc consists of two principal large longitudinal median scuta, surrounded by seven or eight smaller ones. Occipital scale little larger than those by which it is surrounded, two of which separated it from the supraorbitals. Auricular meatus much larger. Five rows of loreal, and one row of suborbital scales. Tibia shorter than head. Infralabials very narrow, keeled. When the posterior limb is extended forwards the end of the longest toe marksthe front of the orbit. Scales on exposed surfaces of femur and forearm large, keeled. Fan large.
The general color is a golden green. On the back is a series of blackish chevrons, with the angle directed posteriorly, and with the lateral branches thickened anteriorly. From the apex of each branch a delicate blackish line descends vertically, stopping on the side below its middle, thus dividing the side into vertical areas. Head more yellow above ; limbs reddish brown.

Measurements (M):
Length to vent: 0325
Length to auricular meatus: .0090
Width at auricular meatus: .0058
Length of anterior limb: .015
Length of posterior limb: .0265
Length of femur: .008
Length of posterior foot: .011 
CommentSimilar species: A. humilis. Resurrected from the synonymy of N. humilis based mainly on differences in hemipenis morphology. Poe (2016) considers the diagnostic characters suggested by Köhler as insufficient to distinguish between A. quaggulus and humilis. Phillips et al. 2015 show that quaggulus is nested within Anolis/Norops humilis.

Relationships: This species is allied to A. tropidonotus and A. uniformis, coming nearest the latter in its scutellation. The scales of the head are however quite different, and the dorsal scales less numerous and of a different form. The color is unlike anything hitherto observed in the genus.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
  • Beckers, H. 2009. Anolis (Norops) quaggulus (COPE, 1885). Iguana Rundschreiben 22 (2): 18-22
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. A contribution to the herpetology of Mexico. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 379-404 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2003. Reptiles of Central America. Herpeton Verlag, 367 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 429] - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, G.; Alt, S.; Grünfelder, C.; Dehling, M. & Sunyer, J. 2006. Morphological variation in Central American leaf-litter anoles: Norops humilis, N. quaggulus, and N. uniformis. Salamandra 42 (4): 239-254 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Johannes 2013. Auf der Suche nach Verbreitungsgrenzen im karibischen Tiefland Costa Ricas. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (3): 68-71 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Phillips, JG, J. Deitloff, C. Guyer, S. Huetteman, and KE Nicholson 2015. Biogeography and evolution of a widespread Central American lizard species complex: Norops humilis, (Squamata: Dactyloidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 143 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2016. Book review: The Anoles of Honduras: Systematics, Dis­ tribution, and Conservation. Q. Rev. Biol. 91: 227 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • WERNING, Heiko 2012. Im Bad mit Anolis – ein Besuch bei Uwe Bartelt. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 88-92 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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