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Anolis ricordii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis ricordii ricordii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837
Anolis ricordii leberi WILLIAMS 1965
Anolis ricordii subsolanus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis ricordii viculus SCHWARTZ 1974 
Common NamesE: Haitian Giant Anole, Haitian Green Anole 
SynonymAnolis Ricordii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 167
Ctenonotus (Semiurus) ricordii — FITZINGER 1843: 64
Xiphosurus ricordii — GRAY 1845: 197
Anolis ricordii — BOULENGER 1885: 22
Semiurus ricordi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 166
Anolis ricordi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 325
Anolis ricordii — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Xiphosurus ricordi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus ricordii — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis ricordii ricordii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837
Anolis Ricordii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 167
Anolis ricordii ricordii — MERTENS 1939
Semiurus ricordi ricordi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Xiphosurus ricordi ricordi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus ricordii ricordi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis ricordii leberi WILLIAMS 1965
Anolis ricordii leberi WILLIAMS 1965
Semiurus ricordi leberi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Xiphosurus ricordi leberi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus ricordii leberi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis ricordii subsolanus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis ricordi subsolanus SCHWARTZ 1974
Semiurus ricordi subsolanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Xiphosurus ricordi subsolanis [sic] — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus ricordii subsolanis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 (in error)

Anolis ricordii viculus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis ricordi viculus SCHWARTZ 1974
Semiurus ricordi viculus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Xiphosurus ricordi viculus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus ricordii viculus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (Haiti, W Dominican Republic)

ricordii: northern Haiti and northern República Dominicana, south in Haiti ta Part-au-Prince region, thence east into Sierra de Neiba and southern slopes of Cordillera Central, República Dominicana; intergrades with A. r. viculus at east-central base of Tiburon Peninsula. Altitudinal distribution near sea level ta 4000 ft. Type locality: St.-Domingue; restricted by Schwartz, 1974, to the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, Département de l'Ouest, Haiti.

leberi: Haiti, southern slopes of Massif de la Hotte. Type locality: Camp Perrin, Departement du Sud, Haiti.

subsolanus: Haiti, southern slopes of Massif de la Selle. Type locality: Source Carroye, near Saltrou, Departement du Sud-Est, Haiti.

viculus: Haiti, northern slopes of Massif de la Hotte. Type locality: Castillon, 2500 ft., Departement de la Grand'Anse, Haiti

INCERTAE SEDIS: Material from north slope of Massif de la Selle has nat been assigned ta subspecies.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1272
Holotype: MCZ 80935 [leberi]
Holotype: MCZ 130270 [subsolanus]
Holotype: USNM 193974 [viculus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 160 mm, in females to 151 mm); dewlap present in both sexes; snout scales at level of second canthal 2-9 (modes 4, 5, 6, 7 by population); 5-10 rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 2-5 (modes 3,4 by population); 4-5 scales (modally) between interparietal and supraorbital semi- circles; dorsal scales generally small, 14-26 in snout-orbit distance; ventrals relatively large, 15-32 in snout-orbit distance; nuchal crest scales in both sexes moderate to low, never high or very high, body crest scales usually low; suboculars usually not in contact with supralabials; dewlap present in both sexes. Dorsum some shade of green, at times flecked irregularly with paler and darker green to give "beadwork" effect; dorsum (males) with either: (1) irregular black to dark brown blotches on neck, occipital region of head, and on sides (often delimiting 2 pale, longitudinal bands), (2) 3 longitudinal, dark brown stripes on each side, (3) dark saddles and a bluish green flank stripe or a powdery, pale, blue-green lateral stripe; dorsum (females) usually without dark dorsal or lateral markings, but at times with darker brown reticulum, 3 pale gray to narrow yellow crossbands, longitudinal black lines, or 2 purple flank stripes; dewlap (males) yellowish gray to peach, bright orange, deep yellow, (females) peach, deep yellow, dull orange, inky brown, or inky blue-black; (males) chin and throat dull yellow, yellow-green, pale blue-green; eyeskin dark (charcoal, dark brown) to light (pale blue), (females) charcoal to pale green; usually with a prominent, pale subocular semicircle clearly delineated (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 325). 
CommentIllustrations: Mertens, 1939; Mertens, 1940; Williams, 1962; Williams, 1965; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985. Synonymy partly after BOULENGER 1885.

Synonymy: Anolis baleatus has been considered as a synonym of A. ricordii.

Species group: Xiphosurus cuvieri species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Mahler, D. Luke; Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, Julienne Ng, S. Blair Hedges, Jonathan B. Losos, and Richard E. Glor 2016. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations. The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/687566 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Mertens, R. 1940. Zoologische Reisen auf der Insel Hispaniola (from Tierleben der Tropen). Verlag Dr. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main, 155-241.
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1921. Notes on the herpetology of Santo Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44: 7-20. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1974. An analysis of variation in the Hispaniolan giant anole, Anolis ricordi Duméril and Bibron. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 146 (2): 86-146 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1962. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 6. The giant anoles. Breviora (155):1-15 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. Hispaniolan giant anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae): new data and a new subspecies. Breviora (232): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
 
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